RISALAH SANG DURJANA BAGIAN SEMBILAN BELAS

Illustrasi Citadel Van Antwerpen

RISALAH SANG DURJANA BAGIAN SEMBILAN BELAS

Sabtu, 22 Maret 1873.

Jauh ditengah-tengah laut yang berpantai ke Bandar Aceh Darussalam, bagaikan ditepi langit, nampaklah oleh penduduk empat kapal api, yang mengambil haluan tepat menuju tanjung tanah Aceh yang disebelah Utara. Bagaikan tabuhan terkejut, lalu terbang berkeliling bercerai-berai meninggalkan sarangnya karena diganggu, penduduk kota berhamburan keluar rumah, lalu lari berduyun-duyun ke tepi laut.

Dari beberapa mulut keluarlah teriakan, “Habib datang! Tentara Turki menyertai kita!”

Keempat kapal tersebut disangka membawa Habib Abdurrahman yang pulang dari Istambul, sambil membawa bala bantuan Turki untuk Aceh. Dalam meninjau menilik-nilik ke tepi langit itu suara orang banyak bergalaulah, masing-masing hendak mengemukakan pendapatnya. Berjenis-jenis pula rupanya laskar liar yang datang berduyun-duyun dengan alat senjatanya, masing-masing siap dengan lembing dan rudusnya. Angkatan Perang Aceh berhasrat hendak menyingsing bala bantuan itu secara layakanya orang menerima tamu yang terhormat.

Setelah lama dan menantikan dengan memasang-masang nama, keluar pulalah teriakan baharu dari segala pihak : “Belanda! Yang datang itu kapal Belanda, bukan kapal Turki!”

Bunyi teriakan itu sambung-menyambung pula. Ada yang terkejut, ada yang ketakutan, ada yang kecewa dan tidak kurang pula yang menyatakan kegemasannya.

“Belanda! Belanda datang!” Demikian pula terdengar teriakan orang banyak dijalan-jalan, mereke meninggalkan tepi pantai, mencari jalan pulang. Kebanyakan khawatir, kalau-kalau kedatangan Belanda menjadikan pertumpahan darah, jika telah sampai kesana maka kewajiban masing-masing laki-laki ialah menentukan keadaan anak-anak dan para wanita serta orang tua yang tinggal di rumah. Jadi terpaksalah mereka meninggalkan tepi pantai terlebih dahulu, meskipun kebanyakan diantara yang membawa senjata telah ridha dan setia untuk mempertahankan tanah airnya dari perkosaaan orang kafir.

Armada kapal perang Belanda mengepung pantai Aceh tahun 1873

Tidak salah! Tiga buah kapal perang dan sebuah kapal “kumpeni”. Masing-masing mengibarkan bendera Belanda diujung-ujung tiangnya, bendera tiga warna, yang telah lama menyakiti hati orang Aceh. Keempat kapal terkutuk itu tidaklah berlabuh di pelabuhan yang biasa, melainkan membuang jangkar di sebelah Barat sungai Aceh, yaitu di dekat beberapa buah benteng pertahanan pantai, yang ada di daerah kekuasaan Teuku Nek. Di kemudian hari, diketahuilah keempat kapal itu barulah perambah jalan saja. Angkatan laut Belanda yang secukupnya datang pulalah menyertai mereka lima belas hari kemudian.

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Salah satu dari kapal perang itu ialah kapal perang “Citadel van Antwerpen”. Di atas kapal tersebut adalah menumpang Nieuwenhuyzen, yang memegang jabatan Utusan Pemerintah Belanda ketika itu. Ditangannya, ia membawa sehelai naskah yang berasal dari Pemerintah Belanda, yang menentukan perang atau damainya antara orang Aceh dan orang Belanda. Nieuwenhuyzen mendapat tugas lebih dahulu melakukan “segala daya upaya yang penghabisan” buat mencari kata damai dengan Sultan Aceh. Tapi jika segala ikhtiarnya sia-sia, maka wajiblah ia menyerahkan naskah ini ketangan Sultan Aceh. Isi naskah tersebut adalah pernyataan perang pihak pemerintah Belanda kepada Kesultanan Aceh.

“Daya upaya yang penghabisan” yang hendak dilakukan oleh komisaris Nieuwenhuyzen itu adalah berupa berbalas-balasan surat dengan Dalam. Didalam surat menyurat itu diceritakan “apa sebab” dan “oleh karena itu”. Dan disesali pula tentang aksi-aksi dibawah tanah terhadap orang Belanda, yang telah dilakukan oleh Orang Aceh di Singapura, sambil bermain mata dengan orang Inggris dan Amerika! Selain daripada itu, dipersalahkan dan diupat pula orang Aceh, karena mereka telah mendukung penyamunan dan pembajakan laut, khususnya ditujukan kepada saudagar-saudagar Belanda yang tidak bersalah. Sultan Aceh diupat dan dipersalahkan telah menggunakan kekuasaannya yang bersandarkan kepada kedaulatan rakyat Aceh secara sesuka-suka, sehingga tindakannya telah merugikan saudagar-saudagar Belanda. Banyak lagi kesalahan-kesalahan orang Aceh kepada Belanda yang dikemukakan Nieuwenhuyzen dalam surat-suratnya kepada Sultan Aceh.

Sultan Aceh memberi pula keterangan dan penjelasan yang membantah. Sultan memberi alasan yang cukup atas kejadian-kejadian yang digunakan menjadi tuduhan tersebut. Pendeknya, Dalam tidak mau mengaku salah, karena tidak merasa bersalah, banyak pula mengemukakan “karena itu” sebagai jawaban “sebab apa” dan “mengapa” yang keluar dari pihak Nieuwenhuyzen.

Pekerjaan berbalas-balasan surat itu diselenggarakan oleh sebuah sekoci Belanda, yang mondar-mandir berdayung antara kapal “Citadel” dengan Dalam. Surat-surat itu dibawa oleh Said Thahir, seorang bangsa Melayu, yang diangkat oleh Belanda sebagai perantara dalam mencari kata “damai” dengan Sultan Aceh. Said Thahir adalah seorang Melayu terkemuka, dahulu ia membuka perniagaan besar di tanah Aceh, dan berhubungan karib dengan raja-raja Aceh yang mendiami segala pelabuhan di kerajaan itu. Sekarang ia menjadi kaki tangan Belanda.

Pekerjaan mondar-mandir membawa surat antara “Citadel” dengan Dalam sangat berbahaya, suasana telah genting. Terlihat yang dicari oleh Belanda bukan kata damai, nyata sikap Belanda hanya mencari retak permasalahan. Di jalan-jalan sampai pantai, laskar liar Aceh telah Nampak berbondong-bondong membawa senjata. Pertumpahan darah sewaktu-waktu pasti akan terjadi, dan orang Aceh telah siap menantikannya.

Bahaya yang senantiasa mengancam Said Thahir, memanglah tidak kecil. Bukan saja karena namanya sudah kurang baik di dalam kalangan orang Aceh, karena ia telah menjadi “budak Belanda”, tapi sekalian orang mengetahui pula perhubungan Said Thahir dengan Melela, seorang Melayu yang tinggal di Meuraksa. Seorang kaki tangan Teuku Nek di Meuraksa. Tak heran, jika Said Thahir tidak lepas-lepas dari pengamatan orang Aceh. Darah mereka senantiasa mendidih, tiap Said Thahir datang ke Dalam membawa surat Nieuwenhuyzen, yang hanya mengandung tuduhan-tuduhan belaka. Demikianlah genting dan hangat suasana saat itu.

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Teuku Nek Meuraksa

Pada suatu ketika, tengah malam buta, ketika hari gelap gulita, maka meluncurlah diam-diam sebuah sampan dari rawa Muara Cangkoi, lalu menuju ketempat kepal-kapal Belanda berlabuh. Akhirnya sampan itu merapat pada kapal “Citadel”. Penumpangnya adalah Melela, yang berkata ia membawa surat-surat penting untuk tuan komisaris, yang memegang tampuk “perang” atau “damai” ditangannya.

Surat yang diserahkan oleh Melela ketangan Nieuwenhuyzen itu berupa sebuah sampul besar, yang memakai cap kebesaran Uleebalang Teuku Nek. Di dalam surat itu, Nek mengatakan dengan segala perkataan manis, bahwa ia berhasrat hendak menyatakan rasa persahabatan karibnya kepada “Kumpeni”, yang diketahuinya bersifat adil, pengasih dan penyayang. Nek menyatakan keikhlasan dan ketulusan hatinya kepada Pemerintah Belanda. Cara Belanda menjalankan pemerintahannya, demikain kata Nek, sangat disetujuinya dan ia mengharapkan Belanda itu akan dilakukan pula dan dikekalkan di tanah Aceh.

Selanjutnya Nek memohonkan, “dari ujung sepatu Belanda sampai puncak topinya”, agar orang kampung Meuraksa dipelihara dan dilindungi oleh tentara Belanda, bilamana peperangan antara Belanda dan Aceh sampai meletus juga. Karena kampung Meuraksa adalah didiami oleh orang-orang tani dan nelayan yang ingin hidup damai. Sesekali orang Meuraksa jangan dibawa-bawa, karena mereka memang jijik akan perang dan tidak hendak ikut campur dalam persengkataan Aceh.

Dan buat penutup Nek memohon pula “kebawah duli” yang dipertuan komisaris yang sedang berlabuh di muka Meuraksa dengan kapal-kapal perangnya, lengkap juga dengan meriam-meriamnya, agar warakat yang tidak sepertinya itu mendapat balasan, walaupun satu patah kata, dtuliskan diatas secarik kertas. Jika balasannya diterima, kelak Nek akan merundingkan tentang takluknya Aceh dengan tidak bersyarat kepada Pemerintah Belanda dengan sekalian pembesar-pembesar Aceh yang sama percaya dan sama mengandung rasa perendahan terhadap orang Belanda.

Komisaris Nieuwenhuyzen sangat gembira menerima surat semacam itu dari seorang Uleebalang, yang diketahuinya berpangkat besar. Hanya ia ragu atas kejujuran Nek. Nieuwenhuyzen telah banya mendengar tentang “kelicinan” dan “kecerdikan” orang Aceh. Terutana mereka yang telah menjadi diplomat. Diplomat Aceh di Singapura telah berhasil menghasut Inggris dan Amerika, sehingga hampir campur tangan dalam pertikaian Belanda dan Aceh. Untung bagi Belanda, dengan segala kebijaksanaan sambil menunjukkan “budi tahu mengambil dan tahu memberi” mereka dapat menghindarkan bahaya percampuran kedua Negara kuat tersebut. Maka tak heran Nieuwenhuyzen ragu atas kejujuran kata Teuku Nek yang bermulut manis itu.

Nieuwenhuyzen tidak mengetui adanya persengketaan antara Mukim VI dengan Meuraksa. Tidak pula diketahui di pedalaman Aceh itu tidak habis-habisnya sengketa. Nieuwenhuyzen terlalu percaya diri dengan kekuatan angkatan perang Belanda dan memilih tidak menggunakan “Politik Memecah lalu Memerintah” (verdeel en heers systeem). Surat Nek itu dibalasnya dengan manis pula, tapi ditutup dengan perkataan orang Belanda “netral” dalam persengketaan orang Aceh dengan orang Aceh. Malela kembali kepada Teuku Nek dengan tangan hampa.

Maka segala sudah damai telah mengalami jalan buntu. Satu-satunya jalan yang terbuka bagi Nieuwenhuyzen adalah menyuruh Said Thahir pergi ke Dalam, membawa surat penyataan perang dari Pemerintah Belanda kepada Kesultanan Aceh. Keputusan Nieuwenhuyzen jatuh pada tanggal 26 Maret 1873.

Untuk mencapai Dalam, ketika menginjak daratan Aceh. Said Thahir harus melalui Meuraksa, daerah Teuku Nek. Disana ia bukan disambut oleh pengiring Nek lagi, melainkan oleh Angkatan Perang Nanta Setia, yang telah menduduki pantai daerah pemerintahan Nek itu. Segala benteng-benteng telah ada dibawah kekuasaan Nanta. Tapi meskipun demikian, naskah yang berisi pernyataan perang dari pihak Belanda, sampai juga di Dalam. Hanya Nieuwenhuyzen tidak sampai menerima balasan yang akan bersejarah dari Sultan Mahmud, putera almarhum Sulaiman yang belum baliq.

Meskipun Said Thahir tidak membawa balasan dari Dalam, tapi selama ia berada di Meuraksa, agak banyak juga pendengarannya tentang keadaan suasana di Aceh. Ia mendengar bahwa beberapa orang penasihat Sultan yang ternama, didalam batin setuju kepada penyerahan kedaulatan Aceh kepada Belanda. Kabar yang dibawa Said Thahir itu sebenarnya membuka kemungkinan bagi Belanda untuk menangguk di air keruh, sebelum perang berkobar. Tapi pernyataan perang telah sampai ke Dalam, maka Nieuwenhuyzen sudah tidak dapat berbuat sesuatu apapun lagi. Nasi telah menjadi bubur!

Akan tetapi banyak pula pahlawan-pahlawan Aceh  yang “berpantang tunduk” kepada Belanda. Mereka taat kepada pembesar-pembesar Kesultanan Aceh yang masyur gagah beraninya, dan telah memaksa Uleebalang Nek menyerahkan benteng-benteng pertahanannya di pantai, kepada mereka.

Illustrasi Pendaratan Pertama Belanda di Aceh (1873)

Maka gemetarlah angkasa, karena gemuruh suara pucuk-pucuk meriam, yang dipasang pada ketiga kapal perang Belanda. Meriam-meriam itu memuntahkan pelurunya ke arah daratan Aceh. Disekalian benteng-benteng Aceh yang ada di pantai-pantai tembakan meriam itu disambut dengan sorak dan tempik gemuruh. Maka berkibarlah bendera-bendera merah, berlukiskan bulan sabit dan bintang, disegala benteng itu. Istanapun tidaklah ketinggalan. Disana dinaikkan pula bendera perang, alamat pernyataan perang dari Belanda diterima dengan keteguhan hati.

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(bersambung)

KATATOG RISALAH SANG DURJANA

  1. BAGIAN SATU;
  2. BAGIAN DUA;
  3. BAGIAN TIGA;
  4. BAGIAN EMPAT;
  5. BAGIAN LIMA;
  6. BAGIAN ENAM;
  7. BAGIAN TUJUH;
  8. BAGIAN DELAPAN:
  9. BAGIAN SEMBILAN;
  10. BAGIAN SEPULUH;
  11. BAGIAN SEBELAS;
  12. BAGIAN DUA BELAS;
  13. BAGIAN TIGA BELAS;
  14. BAGIAN EMPAT BELAS;
  15. BAGIAN LIMA BELAS;
  16. BAGIAN ENAM BELAS;
  17. BAGIAN TUJUH BELAS;
  18. BAGIAN DELAPAN BELAS
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GLUTTONY

You is not exactly blessed with a towering intellect, gluttony, or “Gula” is deadly sin and lack positive effects.

GLUTTONY

Indonesian Translation

Slowly, year after year. Months come, humans are crushed. Every day, in the same streets, feelings never change. Is there something wrong? The wise man said, for many years in the long war, we lost so much intelligent, principled, and faithful people. Leaving out the two-faced. But in actuality in peace, we lose the attitude, discipline, and anger that make life more passionate.

In reflection, I try to recall past uncertain times, a fighting spirit that makes you not give up easily. There was a time when you did not feel the giant, being nobody, open to being anything, and absorbing everything.

Before you become too angry before you get greedy before you “feel” mighty. In fear and misery, you learn to understand the feelings of the losers. The excluded, and weeping for those who are persecuted. That having fun together is fun, but it would be more fun when in difficult circumstances keep caring. Do you realize when you feel superior and superior to others, that is where the beginning of a defeat?

I am talking about you! Not the country’s leaders, not the corruptors on television. I am talking about you, which is clearly visible in front of the mirror. Someone who in his childhood has big dreams, and when big just have a little reality.

I long for those times when the biggest problem in life is just a bad test score or fear being scolded by mama for smoking cigarettes. Now, I see a picture of a pig, and I (you) in a mirror with repeated views, to the point where I can not distinguish one from another.

And when Ramadan comes, I hope you will be holy (fitrah) back.

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RAMADAN AND RELATIVITY

Ramadan is synonymous with fasting. Fasting is related to time. A month in a year, Muslims who feel faithful and willing to be a fasting.

RAMADAN AND RELATIVITY

Indonesia Translation

The wise man said, “God gives all the problems easy to the physicist”, explaining implicitly that the science outside of physics precisely that studying humans is very complicated.

It’s ridiculous to question what works so well. Such as electromagnetic for example. Electromagnetism is confusing, at least confusing Albert Einstein. He envisions two people (eg Bayazid and Barbarossa) carrying a magnetic compass, electric charge passes by. Bayazid stood still, while Barbarossa flew along with the charges at the same speed.

Electromagnetism is confusing, at least confusing Albert Einstein. He envisions two people carrying a magnetic compass, electric charge passes by. one stood still, while another flew along at the same speed.

Bayazid compass needles deviated, but Barbarossa compass needle right! From his point of view, the electric charges did not move. Or, Barbarossa flew by holding a pair of cargo. He just saw their electric field. But Bayazid (silent) also sees the magnetic field due to the movement. Both observers disagreed about the existing terrain. Our measurements do not match!

The more strange, when Barbarossa releases the two payloads, the two keep away from each other. But Bayazid saw the two separated more slowly than Barbarossa, due to magnetic attraction. Both observers measure the speed differently. More strange.

Einstein published his odd analysis of the peculiarity in 1905. Both observers measured different speeds, he said because, from Bayazid’s point of view, time slowed for Barbarossa. True, if Barbarossa had a watch, Bayazid saw that the watch was running slower than he saw in his own hands.

At low speeds, the watch just slows down a bit, so it’s not enough to be measured in the usual way. But as Barbarossa’s speed increases near the speed of light, the Poet sees his watch slower, until it completely stops.

Einstein also pointed out that the object moves shorter (according to the direction of movement) and the mass increases, as the closer the velocity of the object with c, the length shrinks to zero, and the mass increases indefinitely. This series of strange thoughts, supported by a steady calculation, is known as the Theory of Relativity.

A few months later, Einstein published a short paper on the growing mass. As we add energy to moving objects (eg push), speed increases, then mass also increases in an awkward way of relativity.

Somehow, some of the added energy is converted into mass. When Einstein derives the formula that connects mass (m) with energy (e) it turns out that formula is both simple and unsettling: E = MC2. Distracted by c, the speed of light is 300,000 km / sec, then c2 is 90,000,000,000 km2 / second2. An unusually large number, very few masses have the potential to release enormous amounts of energy.

In short, statistical analysis of atomic motion for the first time that atoms and molecules are real physical objects. And he explains the electric photo effect by treating light as the flow of particles (not waves). Another dizzying revolutionary idea that helps lay the foundations of quantum mechanics.

For those wondering what the relationship between Relativity Theory involves time, mass and energy with the creation of atomic bombs hopefully this answers a few questions.

Ramadan is synonymous with fasting. Fasting is related to time. A month in a year, Muslims who feel faithful and willing to be a fasting fast. Fasting is to refrain from all that cancels it (often only associated with eating and drinking) from dawn to sunset, from shubuh to maghrib.

What is interesting here? Time. As Einstein said, time is relative. So silence waiting for time to break with moving in the face will be different. Humans also have mass and energy. Therefore the time in the month of Ramadan is well filled with a series of good activities.

If only goodness, time, mass and energy. What distinguishes Ramadan with another month? The experience of sacrifice. Indeed, human wisdom is tested by many things. Hungry, limp, angry. No one can match the value of sacrifice, neither knowledge nor experience.

Oh, one more privilege Ramadan. The Atomic Bomb named “Lailatul Qadar”. The magical time relativity which lasts a thousand months. Where a man is enlightened one night.

“O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous.” (QS. Al-Baqarah: 183)

Allah SWT commands fasting to people who have faith. Why not just to Muslims? Because of faith in the heart. In contrast to other worship, fasting can not be judged by others. Prayers, zakat, and pilgrimage are seen by others. But fasting is only Allah SWT and the person concerned who knows the truth.

So if there are Muslims in Ramadan that are not fasting (beyond those who are lightened), maybe he is already Islam but not yet believe. Is it also by fasting a man can be a cautious man? Not necessarily, all depends on the quality of himself in fasting.

Prayer during Ramadhan at Masjid Istiqlal, Jakarta – Indonesia.

Ramadan is the month of ethics. When the man becomes a better person. Why ethics? Ethics is above a law that is literally judged to be good, Ramadan is more than that. Ramadan should guide a believer into an ideal (piety). The benchmark is that when a person becomes a better person then he or she runs Ramadan successfully.

Am I right? I do not know because this is all more complicated than Physics.

Marhaban ya Ramadhan

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SUICIDE BOMBINGS IN INDONESIA

The suicide bomber is thought that their most sacred and others unclean, with religious arguments, strong, and lasting.

SUICIDE BOMBINGS IN INDONESIA

Indonesia translation

A girl does not think that she will affect the history of the world. She was named Dhanu, who died on 21 May 1991 in India. That day she came to a rally welcoming Rajiv Gandhi, chairman of the Indian Congress Party at the time. A few minutes before the meeting began, Dhanu walked closer to Gandhi, and offered a bouquet of flowers. But right then he pushed the button that triggered the explosive belt on his body. Explosion sounded. Killed Gandhi, Dhanu himself and several others around it including one of the conspirators who were in charge of making the video document of the incident. They are Tamil Eelam, rebel insurgents in Sri Lanka.

From that day until now, Dhanu’s method is used. One or more people provide themselves to be some kind of weapon, a kind of self-destructive missile with a target in an unexpected environment. Of course after Dhanu, there are some changes. In Palestine, driven by a passion that borders on the loss of rights and sovereignty or an ideal of independence against the colonizing Israel. Now, as seen from “September 11, 2011”, “Bali Bomb” to “Jakarta Bomb” which is heard is the cry of “jihad”: something related to the faith, the strong principles of good and evil.

Azahari and Noordin Top, not a foreigner, if the “foreign” and “odd” and “not known”. But they are not here. They entered quietly from Malaysia to Indonesia, hiring local people to detonate a bomb, killing innocent people, and since then Indonesia fell. Since then the state, the country sung by school children as a “safe and secure”, so it is not safe and not safe for anyone.

Pieces of bodies of suicide bomb victims at Busway Bus Stop Kampung Melayu, East Jakarta strewn on motorcycle parking, Wednesday (24/05/2017). Two people were killed in this incident.

The suicide bomber is thought that their most sacred and others unclean, with religious arguments, strong, and lasting. The ideologues without question. They will not admit that the historical argument that is always changing and different, through interpretation because there is no necessity for them forever to answer a particular situation.

According to most scholars of Islam in Indonesia is perverted suicide bombings, whatever the motives of suicide is against Islam. But they are even thinking of the scholars who speak like that are misguided. Evidence in the end is the interpretation, which remains ultimately copied to the ephemeral, which essentially translates into a relative.

The world is seen as a stubborn reality, more than any proposition. The action of the man who took the death shows the apparent “superman” behavior, terrible, terrifying, and at the same time admirable, which overcomes death.

Even more interesting in that remarkable performance, which actually took place was a performance. The terrible, thrilling, terrifying, and fascinating thing is a part of a heroic stage.

But Indonesia does not need a stage to heroes like that.

This country Indonesia, our homeland, was born through revolution. A thing that Malaysians do not experience like Azahari. A revolution involving many people who suffered under colonial rule. The revolution was an event of solidarity, with sacrifice and pride. But, if Indonesia is not perfect, impermanent and not too revered probably because Indonesia is a limited project, because it realizes human limitations.

As Indonesia was founded in 1945 is a homeland with much hope and anxiety, with passion as well as trepidation. “Indonesia” is forever pounding in history, it does not deny and fear its limitations. He has been walking and bumping to get up in the experience. We all know “Islam” is the flag that flies in Indonesia, with the desire of brotherhood and the longing for the justice of God. The flag is white, but white with color.

That’s not what suicide bombers understand. They blow up bombs, many times, but they will not make the world an arena for the absolute. They wage a total guerrilla, but in the end they will fail.

Maybe the suicide bombers know they will fail. They are ready to die in the hope of a paradise for themselves, and to immerse their victims in infernal hell. And not in the hope of winning the people they defend in this world. So for that, cursed them !!!

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BOM BUNUH DIRI

Para pelaku bom bunuh diri beranggapan bahwa mereka adalah paling suci dan orang lain najis, dengan dalil-dalil agama bergeming, kukuh, dan abadi.

BOM BUNUH DIRI

Seorang gadis tidak menyangka bahwa ia akan mempengaruhi sejarah dunia. Ia bernama Dhanu, dia yang mati pada tanggal 21 Mei 1991. Hari itu ia datang ke rapat umum menyambut Rajiv Gandhi, ketua Partai Kongres India waktu itu. Beberapa menit sebelum rapat dimulai, Dhanu berjalan mendekat ke arah Gandhi, dan mempersembahkan karangan bunga. Tapi saat itu juga ia menekan tombol yang memicu sabuk bahan peledak di tubuhnya. Ledakan terdengar. Terbunuhlah Gandhi, Dhanu sendiri dan beberapa orang di sekitar itu termasuk salah satu anggota komplotan yang bertugas membuat dokumen video kejadian itu. Mereka Tamil Eelam, gerilyawan pemberontak di Sri Langka.

Sejak hari itu sampai sekarang, metode Dhanu dipakai. Satu atau beberapa orang menyediakan diri untuk menjadi semacam senjata, semacam rudal yang menghancurkan diri sendiri bersama sasaran dalam sebuah lingkungan yang tak disangka-sangka. Tentu saja setelah Dhanu, ada perubahan. Di Palestina, didorong semangat yang bertaut dengan pahitnya kehilangan hak dan kedaulatan atau sebuah cita-cita kemerdekaan melawan Israel yang kokoh menjajah. Kini, saperti tampak sejak “11 September 2011”, “Bom Bali” sampai “Bom Terminal Kampung Melayu” yang terdengar adalah pekik “jihad” : sesuatu yang terkait dengan iman, asas-asas yang kukuh tentang kebaikan dan kemungkaran.

Azahari dan Noor Din Top, bukan orang asing, jika “asing” dan “ganjil” dan “tak dikenali”. Tapi mereka bukan orang sini. Mereka masuk diam-diam dari Malaysia ke Indonesia, merekrut orang-orang lokal buat meledakkan bom, membunuh orang yang tak bersalah, dan sejak itu Indonesia terjerembap. Sejak itu negeri ini, negeri yang dinyanyikan oleh anak-anak sekolah sebagai “aman dan sentausa”, jadi tidak aman dan tak sentosa bagi siapa saja.

Para pelaku bom bunuh diri beranggapan bahwa mereka adalah paling suci dan orang lain najis, dengan dalil-dalil agama bergeming, kukuh, dan abadi. Para ideolog tanpa pertanyaan. Mereka tak akan mengakui bahwa dalam sejarah dalil itu selalu berubah dan berbeda, melalui tafsir karena tak selamanya bagi mereka ada keharusan menjawab sebuah keadaan tertentu.

Menurut sebagian besar ulama di Indonesia bom bunuh diri adalah sesat, apapun motifnya bunuh diri bertentangan dengan Islam. Tapi mereka malah beranggapan para ulama yang bersuara semacam itulah yang sesat. Dalil pada akhirnya adalah tafsir, yang kekal pada akhirnya disalin menjadi yang fana, yang mutlak diterjemahkan menjadi yang nisbi.

Dunia terlihat sebagai sebuah realitas yang keras kepala, lebih dari dalil apapun. Tindakan orang yang menempuh kematian itu memperlihatkan secara nyata laku “supramanusia”, yang dasyat, menggetarkan, mengerikan, dan sekaligus mengagumkan, yang mengatasi kematian.

Yang lebih menarik lagi dalam laku yang luar biasa itu, yang berlangsung sebenarnya adalah sebuah pementasan. Yang dasyat, yang menggetarkan, mengerikan, dan mengagumkan itu adalah sebuah bagian dari sebuah panggung kepahlawanan.

Tapi Indonesia tak butuh panggung kepahlawanan seperti itu.

Potongan tubuh korban bom bunuh diri di Halte Busway Kampung Melayu, Jakarta Timur berserakan di parkiran sepeda motor, Rabu (24/5/2017). Dua orang tewas dalam peristiwa ini. Sumber : https://metro.sindonews.com

Negeri ini Indonesia, tanah air kita, lahir melalui revolusi. Suatu hal yang tidak dialami oleh orang Malaysia seperti Azahari. Revolusi yang melibatkan rakyat banyak yang menderita di bawah penjajahan. Revolusi itu sebuah peristiwa solidaritas, dengan pengorbanan dan rasa bangga. Tapi, bila Indonesia tidak sempurna, tak kekal dan tak terlalu dipuja mungkin karena Indonesia adalah sebuah proyek terbatas, karena menyadari keterbatasan manusia. Sebagaimana Indonesia didirikan pada tahun 1945 adalah tanah air dengan banyak harap dan cemas, dengan gairah sekaligus gentar. “Indonesia” selamanya berdebar-debar dalam sejarah, ia tak menafikan dan takut akan keterbatasan. Ia telah berjalan-jalan dan terbentur-bentur untuk kemudian bangkit dalam pengalaman. Kita semua tahu “Islam” adalah bendera yang berkibar di Indonesia, dengan hasrat persaudaraan dan rasa rindu pada keadilan Allah S.W.T. Bendera itu putih, tetapi putih dengan warna-warni.

Itulah yang tidak dipahami oleh para pelaku bom bunuh diri. Mereka meledakkan bom, berkali-kali, tapi tak akan membuat dunia menjadi arena bagi yang absolut. Mereka melancarkan gerilya secara total, tapi pada akhirnya mereka akan gagal.

Mungkin para pembom bunuh diri tahu mereka akan gagal. Mereka siap mati dengan harapan akan surga bagi diri mereka sendiri, serta membenamkan korban mereka ke neraka jahanam. Dan bukan dengan harapan untuk memenangkan orang-orang yang mereka bela di dunia ini. Maka untuk itu, terkutuklah mereka!!!

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PENGULANGAN SEJARAH

Alkisah seorang Kisra Persia memerintahkan kepada sekumpulan ahli sejarah untuk menuliskan sejarah umat manusia dari awal dikenalnya sejarah hingga dengan hari itu.

PENGULANGAN SEJARAH

Alkisah seorang Kisra Persia memerintahkan kepada sekumpulan ahli sejarah untuk menuliskan sejarah umat manusia dari awal dikenalnya sejarah hingga dengan hari itu. Tahun demi tahun berlalu, para ahli sejarah menyelesaikan tulisan mereka. Jumlah tulisannya sebanyak 10 pikulan keledai. Maka Kisra tersebut memerintahkan kepada para ahli sejarah tersebut untuk meringkaskan kembali tulisan tersebut.

Tahun demi tahun berlalu kembali, dan sekali lagi para ahli sejarah menyelesaikan tulisan mereka, kali ini lebih singkat yaitu 100 Juz. Namun dengan pertimbangan bahwa Kisra tersebut telah menua sehingga tidak mampu membaca keseluruhan tulisan maka ia memerintahkan kepada para ahli untuk meringkaskan tulisan itu menjadi lebih pendek.

Maka sekali lagi, para ahli sejarah tersebut meringkaskan tulisan tersebut. Tahun demi tahun kembali berlalu, para ahli sejarah tersebut belum menyelesaikan tulisan tersebut. Hingga akhirnya Kisra tersebut hampir menemui ajalnya, maka ia memanggil salah pemimpin dari para ahli sejarah tersebut untuk menceritakan sejarah umat manusia dalam bentuk yang ringkas sebelum ajalnya menjemput.

Setelah berpikir maka ketua dari para ahli tersebut meringkaskan kepada Kisra tersebut bahwa sejarah umat manusia secara umum adalah sama ; Dilahirkan, Lelah dan kemudian Meninggal. Setelah mendengar kata-kata dari ahli sejarah tersebut maka Kisra tersebut menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir.

Kehidupan anak manusia boleh saja dituliskan dengan cara yang berbeda namun siklusnya selalu sama, begitulah kesimpulan yang diambil oleh para ahli sejarah Persia kuno tersebut. Namun benarkah kesimpulan yang diambil oleh mereka?

Terkadang kita merasa telah belajar dari pengalaman orang-orang dimasa lalu, belajar dari kesalahan-kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang di masa lalu namun  tanpa sadar kita mengulangi tingkah polah orang-orang sebelum kita.

Kesalahan yang paling mendasar dari sikap manusia. Merasa sudah sempurna, sehingga tidak mau lagi belajar dan menerima kritik sehingga perkembangan ilmu dan jiwa menjadi stagnan. Lihatlah betapa bisa berubahnya manusia dalam hitungan waktu, Soekarno yang pada masa mudanya lurus menegakkan Indonesia Merdeka dan harus rela menjadi tahanan politik pemerintah Kolonial disaat menjadi Presiden malah “memenjarakan” teman-teman seperjuangannya sendiri.

Hubungan Sutan Syahrir dan Presiden Soekarno memburuk sampai akhirnya PSI dibubarkan tahun 1960. Tahun 1962 hingga 1965, Syahrir ditangkap dan dipenjarakan tanpa diadili sampai menderita stroke. dan Akhirnya Syahrir meninggal di Swiss pada tanggal 9 April 1966.

Jerman sebagai negara yang mengalami kerusakan total yang memporakporandakan semua sistemnya setelah Perang Dunia II negara ini mampu bangkit, menata ulang dan membangun kembali potensi dan kemajuan negerinya. Pada akhir Perang Dunia II Jerman terbagi menjadi dua, Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur. Pada tahun 1990 Jerman bersatu kembali dan secara resmi terbentuklah Republik Federal Jerman, negara Jerman yang sekarang kita kenal.

Korea Selatan sekarang dikenal sebagai Macan Asia, dengan perekonomian mapan dan perusahaan perusahaannya disegani di dunia. Padahal dahulu, Negeri Ginseng ini benar-benar negara miskin.
Majalah Time menyatakan pada tahun 1960, Korea Selatan lebih miskin dari Irak, Liberia, dan Zimbabwe. Mereka baru selesai perang dengan tetangganya — Korea Utara — dan tidak punya sumber daya alam.

Manusia pada dasarnya sering berbuat salah, namun manusia yang terbaik adalah mereka yang mau belajar dari kesalahan untuk menjadi lebih baik, berbagai musibah yang melanda bangsa ini adalah ujian untuk menjadi bangsa yang lebih baik. Bangsa Jepang tidak akan maju apabila tidak “dibom atom” oleh sekutu, Jerman menjadi negara Industri terkuat Eropa setelah dicabik-cabik dua perang dunia.

Korea Selatan menjadi kekuatan Ekonomi Asia setelah Perang Korea yang meninggalkan trauma. Dan banyak lagi contoh yang lain. Berbagai musibah juga sebuah pertanda, ada yang salah didiri kita. Dan mungkin kita harus segera mengubahnya. Pilihannya adalah, belajar dari sejarah atau mengulangi sejarah.

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DUTCH RAID OPERATION AGAINST CUT MEUTIA (1910)

Painting of Cut Meutia, Beuringen Pirak Village, Matangkuli Sub-district, North Aceh.

DUTCH RAID OPERATION AGAINST CUT MEUTIA (1910)

The heroism of Cut Meutia was obtained at an expensive price, his life. There is a tragic story that we may not see again, a story whereas the children of this nation, shed tears when reading it. The story of the killing of Cut Meutia at the hands of Dutch troops on 25 October 1910 in Pucok Krueng Keureuto, North Aceh.

Sgt. Mosselman, a prominent brigade leader in guerrilla warfare, reported that on October 22, 1910, he was assigned to trail the troops of a herd allegedly in Lhok Reuhat and on the third day he found a new footprint on the branch of the Krueng Peutoe river, despite Acehnese guerrilla forces Has tried to eliminate it.

Dutch troop pursuit of Cut Meutia

“… The farther down the river, the wider the river, the more heavier and the greater. The mountain boulders grew more and more and there were more small meters of water, glassy slippery stones where the water flowed continuously on the carbines and other equipment. After a long climb and waiting for my friends to observe all the circumstances around him, then at about 4 pm, not far ahead of me, I saw a cloud of smoke rolling in the air between the wooden trees. Again the hairs on my neck stood up, a sign of a human being, if he was in danger.

I try to keep the spirit of my men and move forward. What I am left with is the chosen members. However, it is difficult to achieve such a feat of strength. Just marsose Manado Mahamit, nrp 68750 and marsose Java Tarmin, nrp 71065, a very nimble boy from Malang who hides behind a boulder, then turns me and every member of the climbing marsose can see the cues I give.

They are dangerous, Marsose troops. Dutch pride, they are capable subordinates.

After we got together I ordered the troop members to release their rucksacks. When I was about to creep into the forest to see the terrain more clearly so that I could take the best course if I wanted to do a reconnaissance or ambush, suddenly a member of my squad called out: “There!” In the direction called about 200 meters from us seen the people of Aceh are running to a groove. We are unlikely to ambush and only speed can deliver success. “Attack …!” n a moment of lightning run to our seven forwards, to a groove where the man had run away. Despite falling on the rocks but we continue to advance and just stop at a child’s groove. At a distance of approximately 150 meters from the estuary of a groove we encounter a cottage that is being done in abandoned circumstances and its supplies. I wailed, but no one was able to follow me. Together we arrived at the cottage and the three of them stormed into it. After a 200-meter run we came to a sharp tackle line and faced several opposing men, about 30 meters who were trying to cross the river channel. Mamahit who was in front of occasionally pointed to an old man who was escorted by three men to escape into the forest. He fired a shot at the old man who was right on his target and then the old man collapsed.

Immediately raging shoot-out. The three of us were fired at in a very close direction, from the edge of the groove, from the forest, from all directions. Instantly our view of the three met, really mad, that at times like that we both need to look at each other. I think, (then say also Tarmin and Mamahit what they think it is), that the last moment has come for us. It turned out that we had a great success. I jumped into the water in the groove, while behind us stretched the steep hill wall. We stand in the water to the stomach or literally, with our backs against the wall.

We were completely exhausted and fired like a whale blast. We can hardly shoot. The opponents of the opponent scattered before us in the shrinking waters of the hill wall behind us, all misses, but our shots were the same. In panting it is not possible to fire the right shot. In short we have to calm down, to do the raid is not possible because I know very well, that we are now in the midst of opponent forces. Therefore we must strive in this place, if we are hit by opponent bullets, to sell our lives at a price as expensive.

The opposite seems to be panicking. We felt lucky to have calmed down before they could attack us.

An invading gesture was given by a lean woman, yellow-white face with loose hair, swung her machete as her yelled that suddenly attacked from the forest. Her fell down like all the other young men who followed in his footsteps by a shot that hit his head as he stormed a few feet in front of us.

The sound of gunfire rumbled again, even more terrible than before. I sensed that the opponents were getting closer to us. What a critical thing at all while I still have not seen one of our troop members. Then they doubt the actual scene, even though the sound of the gunshots is so hectic! When at first there was a terrific fire on the backs of the opponents. That is a tactic! And really, if they appear like water droplets, the one on the groove, it would be less interesting, then it is certain that we all have names.

The three of us cursed in three languages. Mahamit interrupted his Manadon accent. From the mouth of Tarmin among the “typical” Javanese, I heard repeatedly the words “dog” and “pig” in each shot. The sound of gunfire resembled a thundering music in our ears and suddenly, somewhat obliquely in front of us, in the cracks of the gunfire, came the screaming of people: “Go forward, smite marsose!” Opponents thought that they had been surrounded. Does not it make sense, that the Dutch just sent three marsose men deep into the forest.

The eruption of the shot was somewhat stalled. The shouts of “Allah il Allah” slowly sounded lethargic and suddenly we were five of us with Wakary and Sinkey jumping from the edge of the grove overgrown to the bottom of the groove, storming into the forest in front of us which I suspect the opponent’s place is hiding.

In front of us lay an elderly man whose friend had been hit by our bullets. From behind huge boulders jumped two young men swiftly forward. Each of them protects the old man’s body with their body, wielding a machete in his hand. Both of them had to be killed with our machetes. When I stepped on it I saw that the old man had died. He lies on the ground in a state of motion regardless of the things that happen to him. For a moment I saw the gold-plated weapon, the famous “keris” weapon and suddenly flashed through my head that it must be a sacred person. This is evidenced by the sacrifice of the two young men who actually face death in a hero.

We are not yet time to rest and continue to storm into the forest. Opponent gunners will not wait for us. Only someone has recorded us with a glance from behind a log. I saw a big mole near his nose, a terrible feeling aroused me when my machete flew over his neck.

W.J Mosselman

As I tell this story now I feel as though it was only yesterday that I experienced it even though it was over 27 years ago. I still see the look of that yellow white woman with her intelligent face, fueled by her burning feelings to die as a martyr. With wild eyes and hair loose on his head, which swung a machete attacked us. Did she get tired of his escape? What was her act, so it occurred to me later to know who she was, for the sake of her son? We did not see her son at all, the young men who carried the old parents with their unshining eyes (the cleric was later identified as Tengku Seupot Mata) were the youngest members of the opponent.

For one person there may be no limit to the suffering she can endure, but there is suffering to bear. Her second husband was sentenced to death, the third (Pang Nanggroe) was shot too, a persistent pursuit addressed to her, A terrible suffering in his life, constantly escaping, probably because of his fate following her, crossed her mind: “God’s will” All the worship and praise of her, who determined His time and with His permission also made me the cause of her death.

It is therefore not a certainty, that the woman bought her death with confidence to meet those who had preceded it? Both she and Pang Nanggroe are people who do not know, what he said later, “mel” (= Report)! Those who are young will tell later in various mosques, that they have been martyred in 1910 … “

This W.J Mosselman Report (1937) is recorded in Aceh (1938), H.C Zentgraf, which was translated into Indonesian by Aboe Bakar (1983) Page 227-231.

Explanation of Central Bank of Cut Meutia in Rp denominations Rp.1000, –

The death of Cut Meutia and Tengku Seupot Mata is only a break in the battle. The Dutch colonial government realized there would be resistance from the people of Aceh to the colonial government, although after Cut Meutia the Aceh resistance was only sporadic and small. The Dutch never calmed down even until they left Aceh in 1942.

Translation in Indonesia

About Aceh:

  1. CUMBOK WAR, A SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN ACEH (1946-1947)
  2. ACEH THE FIRST SOVEREIGN COUNTRY TO RECOGNIZE THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE NETHERLANDS
  3. CIVILIZATION WITHOUT WRITING

 

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HISTORY OF SARONG

HISTORY OF SARONG

People “sarungan” all over Indonesia, unite !!!

All stories begin with “once upon a time” or with “in ancient times”. But when was time immemorial? When you were a kid when you were still crawling? You do not remember so your father and mother were small as well. Your grandparents too. Grandparents also have grandparents. They also say “in ancient times”, there is always the same expression again.

So this story begins with a sentence, in ancient times. An unknown genius finds a very precious object: a sarong. The shape, a hundred square centimeters of fabric, various shades, two edges linked lengthwise. The English call it sarong and certainly imitate the word Malay, “sarung”. Although they are reluctant to use it.

The British consider it an impractical dress. No matter, the British “practical” size is different from us. For us, sarong precisely a technology appropriate for all benefits. We can wear it for prayers to the mosque or wedding party, make to the latrine, make a cold blanket, protect from the heat, can be a mask. In a state not as a clothing, a sarong can be a wrapper or book, for example when we move house.

Maybe a genius might find something like that. Or maybe, through a long process.

But something has happened to the sarong. Perhaps because also the experience of a culture always has a changed social relationship. Sarongs, which can be both elegant and casual as Calvin Klein designs, are now receding into something very private, just for the bedroom, in the bathroom, or for prayer. The only chance when a sarong comes into the public sphere is when going to the mosque, on Fridays and festivals. The rest, he just a troublesome ornament.

It is not surprising, then, that a sarong can be a symbol of something shrunken natives, something “people” but urgent, something that suits the environment but is threatened by the flooding modernization flows. Slowly, finally, sarongs also become a symbol of modest independence in the face of the fake plastic-fisted cement.

A bit strange is the history of sarongs. There was a time when he became the identity of a mocked layer. At the beginning of the Soeharto regime in Indonesia (1965-1998), there was a slogan warning to be wary of “sarongs”. No specific who, but immediately the phrase becomes clear.

At that time, the tension was felt but rarely spoken, between abangan, with the marginalized (santri) on the one hand. And as a periphery, the santri who dressed in sarongs for a long time were not the people who were heard in the cultural arena. They are “hicks”.

Time certainly changes the dispute. Perhaps “hick” things are now being weighed again and by social, economic or political change even appreciated. However, (as a diligent reader), I never forget the story of Doel on Lebaran day in Aman Dt Modjoindo’s book, this Betawi boy, with all the dreams of a village boy, trying to wear a hat and tie. But his knees, the fierce teacher of the Koran, sprayed him. Si Doel returns wearing a sarong, but his heart is crushed. This romance was composed in the Dutch colonial era. We know where Aman, author of Balai Pustaka which is controlled by the O.K & W Department is (forced) to take sides. The Dutch colonial government clearly “hates” the sarong.

In the third world, most of the colonized peoples, the history of clothing is indeed a history of a cultural and political clash, which sometimes erupts loudly sometimes like lava in the belly of the mountain. In Turkey, to modernize his people, Mustafa Kemal cut the turbus off the heads of many people. In India, as well as to liberate his people, Gandhi maintained the results of the khadi industry. In Indonesia, sarong has also become a socio-cultural item in an era of transition. It is also a point of conflict.

We can see it, precisely because it is versatile, as a sign of our limitations. But we can also, on the other hand, as well as other times, see it with a sense of miss. We can be a snob who scoffs at it as a sacred item. But we can also hoist it aloft, just so as not to be equated with the glamorous rich.

Therefore we love sarongs, the tools that always exist in the ruling house, or the commoners.

Artikel dalam Bahasa Indonesia

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KESULTANAN ACEH NEGARA BERDAULAT PERTAMA YANG MENGAKUI KEMERDEKAAN REPUBLIK BELANDA DARI KERAJAAN SPANYOL DI TAHUN 1602

Menyalakan samar hampar lautan, aku menjelma menjadi sebaris nama (Illustrasi Aceh Tempoe Doeloe)

KESULTANAN ACEH NEGARA BERDAULAT PERTAMA YANG MENGAKUI KEMERDEKAAN REPUBLIK BELANDA DARI KERAJAAN SPANYOL DI TAHUN 1602

Surat kabar Provinciealse Zeeuwse Courant yang terbit di Middelburg (Belanda) pada tanggal 25 Oktober 1978 menceritakan peristiwa upacara sebuah monumen yang didirikan di kota Middelburg, sebagai kenangan Duta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, Tengku Abdul Hamid, yang meninggal di Belanda pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1602.

Pangeran Benhard atas nama Kerajaan Belanda meresmikan Monumen Kenangan kapada Duta Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam Abdul Hamid. Gambar di atas Pangeran Benhard baru selesai membuka tirai yang menutupi sarakata di atas marmer pada monumen ; di belakang Drs. Garnawan Dharmaputera Kuasa Usaha yang mewakili Duta Besar Republik Indonesia di Negeri Belanda

Menurut surat kabar tersebut, upacara peresmian monumen kenangan kepada Duta Kesultanan itu berlangsung khidmat. Dihadiri oleh pembesar sipil dan militer. Duta Besar Republik Indonesia di Belanda yang diwakili oleh kuasa usahanya Drs. Garnawan Dharmaputera, sementara provinsi Aceh diwakili Drs. Teuku Iskandar, Abubakar dan Dokter Teuku Hasan Ubit.

Di antara para tamu penting yang hadir, yaitu Pangeran Bernhard (suami Ratu Juliana), Drs. A.J. Piekaar, Letnan Jenderal F van der Veen (Ketua Stichting Peutjut Fond), Komisaris van de koningin dr. C. Boetien dan Walikota Middleburg Drs. P.A. Wolters.

Pendirian monumen kenangan kepada Abdul Hamid di Belanda harus dilihat dari segi sejarah kebesaran bangsa Indonesia sebagai mata rantai pertama silsilah pembentukan perwakilan Indonesia di luar negeri terutama di Eropa.

Surat Pangeran Maurice kepada Sultan Aceh

Maurice of Orange. Portrait by Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt, 1607.

Pada akhir abad ke-16 sampai awal abad ke-17 Belanda membebaskan diri dari penjajahan Spanyol, Pangeran Maurice memproklamirkan berdirinya Republik Belanda yang merdeka dan berdaulat. Akibatnya, rakyat Belanda melakukan peperangan yang lama terhadap kekuasaan Spanyol sebagai Negara imperialis terbesar saat itu.

Saat itu, Negara-negara di Eropa belum berani mengakui kemerdekaan Belanda, karena takut pada kekuasaan Spanyol. Maka Pangeran Maurice selaku ketua dari Republik Belanda yang baru didirikan mencari teman dan dukungan ke bagian lain dunia, Asia.

Republik Belanda mengambil keputusan mengadakan hubungan diplomatik dengan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Untuk melaksanakan keputusan tersebut Pangeran Maurice mengirimkan sebuah delegasi yang dipimpin oleh Komisaris Negara Gerard de Roy dan Laksamana Laurens Bicker, dengan empat buah kapal, yaitu Zeelandia, Middelburg, Langhe Bracke dan de Sonne. Mereka berangkat menuju Aceh 29 Januari 1601 dan tiba 23 Agustus 1601.

Delegasi Gerald de Roy membawa sepucuk surat dari Kepala Republik Belanda Pangeran Maurice, yang maksudnya bahwa Republik Belanda yang baru ingin bersahabat dengan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam. Berikut isi surat tersebut :

“Pada tahun yang baru lewat, 1598 Masehi, atas perintah telahpun bertolak dua buah kapal dagang dari negeri ini, dengan tujuan mengadakan perniagaan di Hindia Timur, kapal mana sudah tiba di sana pada tanggal 15 Agustus  tahun itu juga.

Telah dikabarkan kepada beta betapa baiknya sambutan yang diberikan kepada mereka oleh Yang Mulia dan betapa cermatnya pelayanan yang diberikan mereka ketika mereka tiba di kerajaan Yang Mulia, disamping itu betapun mendapat kabar juga bahwa dengan memenuhi peraturan yang berlaku dan dengan segala kejujuran mereka telah melaksanakan maksud-maksud perdagangan tersebut.

Tapi tatkala orang-orang Portugis yang menjadi warga dari Kerajaan Spanyol, musuh kami, mendapat kabar bahwa mereka sedang mendapat perlindungan dan bantuan yang dijanjikan oleh Yang Mulia, merekapun lalu menceritakan hal-hal yang dusta, untuk menyesatkan Yang Mulia, diantaranya dikatakanlah oleh mereka bahwa para saudagar Belanda itu adalah bajak laut, dan bahwa kedatangan mereka adalah untuk merampas kerajaan Yang Mulia.

Hasil pendustaan itu, Yang Mulia telah menitahkan menangkap Frederick de Houtman, nahkoda salah satu dari kapal itu, bersama beberapa awak kapal, serta menahan mereka, hal mana berakibat penderitaan mereka.

Dengan keyakinan akan belas kasihan Yang Mulia terhadap mereka, inginlah beta menyampaikan harapan agar kiranya Yang Mulia menitahkan mereka dipelihara dengan baik, sebagai juga dilakukan terhadap setiap warga yang berkunjung ke kerajaan Yang Mulia, yang bebas telah kembali, semoga para tawanan yang sekarang berada di negeri Yang Mulia dapat pula mengecap kebebasannya kembali.

Kepada beta dikabarkan pula bahwa orang-orang Portugis telah mengadakan peperangan terhadap kerajaan Yang Mulia atas perintah Raja Spanyol, dengan tujuan untuk merampas negeri itu dan menjadikan warganya hamba sahaya, sebagaimana yang demikian telah dilakukannya selama lebih dari 30 tahun di negeri kami.

Tapi Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa tidaklah sekali-kali ingin demikian, dan sebaliknya kami telah mengangkat senjata menentang penjajahan itu dan akan melakukannya sampai berhasil.

Oleh sebab-sebab itulah beta bermohon kepada Yang Mulia agar kiranya tidak mempercayai orang-orang Portugis tersebut, dan supaya Yang Mulia tidak perlu mencurigai lagi kepada warga yang datang dari negeri beta dan untuk mendapat kesempatan berniaga, maka inilah beta menugaskan perutusan beberapa wakil beta membawa surat ini, terdiri dari para delegasi berkuasa penuh sejumlah empat orang, yaitu nahkoda-nahkoda Cornelis Bastiaanse, Jan Tonneman, Matthys Antonisse dan Cornelis Adriaanse, bersama beberapa komisaris (zaakgelastigden), yaitu Geradl de Roy, Laurens Begger, Jan Jacobs dan Nicolas van der Lee, kesemuanya berangkat dengan empat kapal untuk, atas nama beta, mengadakan perundingan dengan Yang Mulia, untuk membicarakan bantuan-bantuan apakah yang dikehendaki untuk menumpas musuh-musuh.

Demikian pula kepada mereka telah beta beri izin tugas untuk memberikan bingkisan-bingkisan yang lazim kepada Yang Mulia sebagai bukti dari idam-idaman beta mengadakan pesahabatan dengan Yang Mulia.

Beta mohon agar bingkisan yang dikirim itu mendapat sambutan. Dan dengan ini beta mendoakan kepada Tuhan agar Yang Mulia dan kerajaannya bertambah luas sesuai dengan keinginannya.

Termaktub di Den Haag, Belanda, pada tanggal 11 Desember 1600

Tangan yang dicium oleh hambanya

Tertanda Maurice de Nassau

Delegasi Tengku Abdul Hamid

Isi surat Pangeran Maurice kepada Sultan Aceh, pada waktu itu yaitu Sultan Alaidin Riayat Syah Saidil Mukammil (997-1011 Hijriah / 1589-1604 Masehi) dibicarakan oleh Sultan dalam sidang Dewan Kerajaan, kemudian memutuskan antara lain :

  1. Menerima baik keinginan Pangeran Maurice sebagai Kepala Republik Belanda untuk mengadakan hubungan diplomatik dan ekonomi dengan Belanda;
  2. Mengakui Republik Belanda sebagai Negara yang merdeka dan berdaulat penuh;
  3. Mengirimkan sebuah delegasi ke Belanda, sebagai balasan kunjungan.

Delegasi Aceh dipimpin Tengku Abdul Hamid, seorang ulama dan negarawan terkenal, Laksamana Sri Muhammad, seorang perwira tinggi Angkatan Laut yang berpengalaman, Mir Hasan seorang diplomat dan negarawan pada Wizarah Badlul Muluk (Depertemen Luar Negeri), Leonard Werner alias Pusque Camis, keturunan Luxemburg sebagai juru bahasa dan sejumlah perwira serta prajurit Angkatan Laut.

Dalam perjalanan menuju Belanda, kapal Belanda yang membawa delegasi Aceh dicegat oleh kapal Portugis “San Jabo”, sehingga terjadi pertempuran laut, dimana prajurit dan perwira Aceh terlibat dalam pertempuran ini. Kapal “San Jabo” dapat dikalahkan dan barang-barang di dalamnya dirampas dan dibawa ke Belanda. Pada 20 Juli 1602 Kapal Belanda tiba dengan selamat di Zeeland.

Pada saat delegasi Aceh tiba di Belanda, Pangeran Maurice sedang berada di markas perangnya di sebuah kampung bernama Grave. Menurut Dr. Wap dalam bukunya Het Gezantschap van den Sultan Aceh, pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1602 akibat pertukaran udara, dikebumikan pada 11 Agustus 1602 dalam gereja St. Pieter di kota Middelburg. Meninggalnya Abdul Hamid sebelum berjumpa dengan Pangeran Maurice, Laksamana Sri Muhammad mengantikannya kemudian sebagai Ketua Delegasi. Pada batu nisan Abdul Hamid tertulis :

Hic Situs Est

Abdul Zamat Princeps Legationis

A Rege Tabrobanae Seu Sumatrae

Sultan Alcien Raietza Lillo Lahe

Felalam Ad Illustriss Princip

Mauritium

Missae

Cum Duap. Navi. Zeeland Quae

In Dedit. Acceper.

Liburnicum Lusitanam

Vixit An. LXXI Obiit Anno CI]I] II

H.M.P.C

 

Di sini dimakamkan

Abdulhamid, Kepala Delegasi dari

Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah

Utusan untuk menemui

Yang Mulia Pangeran Maurits dengan

Kapal Zeeuw, yang telah merampas

Kapal Perang Portugis

Tutup usia 71 tahun, meninggal

Di tahun 1602

Kompeni Hindia Timur membuat peringatan

Menyerahkan Surat Kepercayaan dan Surat Pengakuan tehadap Republik Belanda

Setelah selesai masa berkabung atas meninggalnya Tengku Abdul Hamid, pada tanggal 1 September 1602 delegasi Aceh dibawah pimpinan Laksamana Sri Muhammad menghadap Pengeran Maurice di markasnya

Pertemuan Delegasi Aceh dengan Pangeran Maurice van Orange (1602)

Dalam kesempatan tersebut, Ketua Delegasi Aceh menyerahkan surat kepada Pangeran Maurice Surat Kepercayaan dan Surat Pengakuan Aceh terhadap Republik Belanda, juga disampaikan dengan khidmat bingkisan-bingkisan dari Sultan Alaiddin Riayat Syah Saidil Mukammil.

Upacara penerimaan Delegasi Aceh diadakan dengan khidmat dan meriah. Selesai pembicaraan resmi dengan Pangeran Maurice, kepada Delegasi Aceh diperlihatkan hasil-hasil perang menghadapi Spanyol, juga meninjau kota-kota dan kampung-kampung di Belanda. Menurut catatan sejarah, Aceh merupakan Negara berdaulat pertama di dunia yang mengakui kemerdekaan Belanda yang baru lahir secara de facto dan de jure.

Madu dibalas dengan tuba

Eduard Douwes Dekker, also known as Multatuli

Di tahun 1872, sewaktu Kerajaan Belanda mengadakan persiapan menyerang Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, dalam surat-surat kepada Raja Belanda, Multatuli pernah mengingatkan kembali peristiwa pengakuan Aceh kepada Republik Belanda, bahkan Multatuli berbicara dalam sebuah rapat di Wiesbaden ditegaskannya : “Ketika Belanda memperjuangkan kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol, Kerajaan Acehlah yang pertama mengakui Belanda sebagai satu bangsa yang merdeka”.

Rupanya madu dibalas dengan tuba!

Sungguhpun demikian, di tahun 1978 kebaikan dan kebesaran jiwa sekali lagi diperlihatkan kepada Belanda, ketika Gubernur Aceh A. Muzakkir Walad atas nama rakyat Aceh meminta kepada Dutabesar Belanda agar kerangka mayat Mayor Jenderal Kohler yang kuburannya digusur di Jakarta dibawa ke Aceh dan dimakamkan kembali di Peucut Aceh.

Kerkoff Peucut adalah kuburan prajurit Belanda yang tewas dalam Perang Aceh. Kompleks kuburan ini terletak di kota Banda Aceh,

Orang yang tak menghayati jiwa Aceh, mungkin tidak mengerti mengapa Mayor Jenderal Kohler yang memimpin penyerangan pertama ke Aceh sebagai “Panglima Agressor” dan tewas sewaktu memimpin pembakaran terhadap Masjid Raya Baiturrahman, setelah Jakarta menggusur kuburannya, Peucut di Banda Aceh menyediakan diri untuk menerima kerangka mayat musuh utamanya.

Pekuburan Peucut adalah tempat ditanamnya sekian perwira tinggi dan perwira menengah serta prajurit Belanda yang mati dalam masa puluhan tahun peperangan dahsyat antara Belanda dan Aceh.

Untuk mengurus dan memagar kembali pekuburan Peucut itu, di Belanda dibentuk satu yayasan bernama “Stichting Peucut Fonds” (Yayasan Dana Peucut), yang didirikan dan dipimpin oleh perwira-perwira Belanda yang telah pensiun yang dulunya pernah di Aceh, seperti Letnan Jenderal F. van der Veen, Kolonel J.H.J Brendgen dan lain-lain.

Agar jangan dikatakan lagi “madu dibalas tuba” maka Stichting Peucut Fonds mengambil prakarsa untuk mendirikan monumen bagi Tengku Abdul Hamid, Ketua Delegasi Kerajaan Aceh Darussalam yang meninggal di kota Middelburg pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1602.

Stichting Peucut Fonds berhasil menggerakkan pemerintah dan masyarakat Belanda untuk memperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan yang lalu, antara lain dengan mendirikan monumen yang pada tanggal 24 Oktober 1978 diresmikan oleh Pangeran Benhard (suami Ratu Juliana) atas nama Kerajaan Belanda. Pada batu marmer yang melekat pada monumen terekam tulisan sebagai berikut :

Ter Nagadachtenis Aan

Abdoel Hamid Hoffd van het Atjehse Gezantsechap

Door

Sultan Alaoeddin Riajat Syah Lillahi Fil Alam

Afgefaardigd

Naar Prins Maurits Met de Zeeuwse Sechepen

De Zeelandia en de Langhe Barcke

Hij Was Oud Een-en-zeventig Jaar Overleed in 1602

En Werd Bigezet In de Oude Kerk te Middulburg

De Stichting Peutjut Fonds Heeft Dese Dedenkplaat

Doen Plaatsen 24 Oktober 1978.

Kenangan kepada Abdulhamid

Ketua Perutusan Aceh yang diutus

Oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah Lillahi Fil Alam

Kepada Pangeran Maurits yang berangkat dengan kapal-kapal

Zeeland de Zeelandia dan Langhe Barcke

Beliau meninggal dalam usia 71 tahun

Dimakamkan dalam gereja tua di Middelburg

Yayasan Dana Peucut yang membuat monumen ini

Pada tanggal 24 Oktober 1978.

Arti dan makna Monumen Tengku Abdul Hamid

Dalam nukilan sekelumit sejarah tempo dulu, jelaslah bahwa Monumen Kenangan kepada Abdul Hamid, Ketua Perutusan Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, sebagai Dutabesar bangsa Indonesia, mempunyai pengertian sejarah yang amat penting sekali dalam sejarah hubungan diplomatik bangsa kita.

Monumen Kenangan Dutabesar Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam, Tengku Abdul Hamid di Middelburg, Belanda

Seperti yang dikutip pada pidato Dutabesar Republik Indonesia untuk Belanda yang diwakili oleh Drs. Garnawan  Dharmaputera yang dalam pidato sambutannya mengatakan, “Bagi bangsa Indonesia tentu dianggap sangat penting, karena Tengku Abdul Hamid adalah Dutabesar bangsa Indonesia yang pertama memimpin misi diplomatik di negeri Belanda, sehingga beliau dan para anggota perutusan lainnya merupakan pelopor pembentukan perwakilan Republik Indonesia sekarang ini di Belanda.”

Sudah pasti pula bagi bangsa Belanda peristiwa tersebut dianggap sangat penting dan bersejarah pula, sehingga peresmiannya dilakukan sendiri oleh Pangeran Benhard sendiri, tidak umpamanya oleh Walikota Middelburg.

Hari ini, peristiwa peresmian monumen Abdul Hamid, yang berlangsung pada tanggal 24 Oktober 1978 di Middelburg kita ungkapkan kembali untuk diketahui segenap bangsa Indonesia.

Referensi :

  1. Ali Hasjmy; Aceh Negara Berdaulat Pertama Yang Mengakui Kemerdekaan Negeri Belanda; Sinar Darussalam No. 10 Mei/Juni 1979.
  2. Surat Kabar Provinciealse Zeeuwse Courant yang terbit di Middelburg (Belanda) pada tanggal 25 Oktober 1978.
  3. Mohammad Said; Aceh Sepanjang Abad; Halaman 128-129.
  4. Dr. Wap; Het Gezantsschap van den Sultan Aceh.

XXX

Artikel lain tentang Sejarah Aceh :

  1. PERANG CUMBOK
  2. SAMUDERA PASAI SEBAGAI TITIK TOLAK ISLAM DI ASIA TENGGARA, SEBUAH UPAYA MELAWAN PSEUDO SEJARAH
  3. OPERASI PENYERGAPAN BELANDA TERHADAP CUT MEUTIA

Simak pula kunjungan tim Tengkuputeh ke museum Aceh dalam rangka pameran Batu Nisan Aceh sebagai Warisan Budaya Islam di Asia Tenggara dalam video berikut :

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HISTORY OF COFFEE

To reach us, Coffee has a long history

HISTORY OF COFFEE

Introduction to European Culture and Coffee

Until the seventeenth century, knowledge of the “westerners” about coffee was arguably minimal. Chronicles circa 1600, which contains a group of church leaders coming to Pope Clement VIII to ask him to speak illicit coffee, illustrating how unfamiliar they are with coffee. Note Sir George Sandys, English poet, in 1610 still shows the same thing. He writes, Turkish people can talk for most of the day while sipping drinks described as “as black as soot, and unusual taste”. Sandys also said that this drink, “as they (the Turks) say, make digestion smooth and refresh the body.”

In 1615 the Europeans formally became acquainted with coffee. At that time the traders from Venezia, Italy, brought home coffee from the Levant region, now known as the Middle East area, covering Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. A year later, as the gallacoffee.co.uk website owner James Grierson noted in the article “History of Coffee: Part III – Colonization of Coffee”, it was the turn of the Dutch who brought coffee from the Adan region of Yemen and cultivated it from Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) to Indonesia. The Dutch finally reap the rewards. They monopolize the world coffee industry, even can determine the price. Peak, in the 1700s, Java’s coffee production competed with Mocha coffee, Yemen, as the most popular coffee product in the world.

Initially, the Europeans treat the coffee as a medical material that gives a positive effect on the body. The price is expensive. Generally consumed high-class society. In the 1650s, when vendors of lemon drinks in Italy included coffee as a merchandise, while UK coffee shops emerged, the drink began to find its social dimension; Consumed while talking.

As coffee began to spread to the major European countries, the old story repeated itself. Appears the opposing parties. According to Linda Civitello in Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People, in 1679, doctors from France made a bad note about coffee. He said, “… with horror that coffee makes people no longer fond of wine.” This attack followed by a young doctor who considers coffee can lead to fatigue, causing bad things in the human brain, gnawing body functions, and the cause of impotence.

The defending party immediately voiced. A doctor, also French origin, Philippe Sylvestre Dufour, published a book that positively assesses this exotic drink. Then in 1696, a French doctor also said the coffee is good for the body and refreshes the skin. However, as we shall see, the opposition to coffee does not stop here.

When it began to discover its social dimension, coffee was no longer just a drink that was routinely consumed but also involved in many socio-political changes in Europe. Linda Civitello said, for the first time people (Europe) have a reason to gather in public spaces without involving alcohol. This activity also developed into a political social routine. As written on The Economist website on July 7, 2011, “Back to the coffee house”, in that era the concept of mass media has not been known. News spread from mouth to mouth in the coffee shops, through a dialogical process.

In Germany, the popularity of coffee disrupts its ruler, Frederick the Great. In 1777, he issued a manifesto in favor of a traditional German drink, a beer: “It is disgusting to see the increasing quantity of coffee consumed by my people, and the implications, the amount of money coming out of our country. My people have to drink beer. Ever since our ancestors, our glory has been raised by beer.” Something similar happened in France when coffee began to compete with wine. While in England, King George II hostile coffee because people who gathered in coffee shops often mocking him.

But there was no strongest opposition to the existence of a coffee shop in London rather than Women’s Petition in 1674, which protested the wasted time of men in coffee shops, and did not allow women to visit coffee shops, as in France. Then, on December 29, 1675, King Charles II issued a declaration about the Coffee Shop Ban, citing people’s neglect of social responsibility and disrupting the stability of the kingdom. Protest voices were popping up in London. The climax, two days before the rule took effect, the king resigned.

The siege of Vienna by Turkey can be regarded as the starting point for European nations to know coffee

In another part of Europe, Vienna, Austria, the introduction of this country with coffee is like repeating the classic story that has happened elsewhere. In July 1683, defeated Turkish troops left behind a variety of goods, including five hundred large sacks of strange beans, which the soldiers regarded as camel food. Because it turns out the camels are not hooked, they throw hundreds of sacks to the fire. Kolschitzky, a soldier who had lived in the Arabian Peninsula, was awakened by the burning aroma.

“By the Holy Mary!” Cried Kolschitzky. “What you burn is coffee! If you do not know the point, give it to me.” So with that stock, he opened a coffee shop that included the early generation in Vienna. Several decades later, coffee colored the intellectual life of the city.

But the picture of coffee shops not only dominated the positive note. As soon as such places are open, people from different social and character backgrounds meet together. Therefore, as a note noted Mark Pendergrast quotes, in coffee shops people read, chatted; Passers-by, smokers, and a variety of scents mixed together, like a barge cabin.

Other countries in Europe began to recognize coffee around the same period. While the Scandinavian countries, the most protuberantly acquainted with coffee, as the 2002 data listed on nationmaster.com, is now the region with the highest per capita coffee consumption in the world.

The Early history of coffee, from the origin of the plant to the trading of coffee beans.

Mocha Port in Yemen is an important port in the first coffee spread

The history of coffee records the origins of coffee plants from Abyssinia, an area of Africa that currently covers the territory of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Coffee became a commercial commodity after being brought by Arab traders to Yemen. In the Arabian peninsula popular coffee as a refreshing drink. In the early days of the Arabs monopolized the trading of coffee beans. They control the trade through Mocha, a port city located in Yemen.

At that time Mocha became the only trade gate trade coffee beans. So important is the meaning of the port, the Europeans sometimes call coffee with the name Mocha. Entering the 17th century the Europeans began to develop their own coffee plantations. They cultivate coffee plants in their colonies scattered in various corners of the earth. One of them in Java developed by the Dutch. For a certain period of coffee from Java had dominated the world coffee market. At that time a cup of coffee more popularly called “cup of java”, literally meaning “a cup of coffee from Java”.

Etymology of coffee terms

Before further tracing the history of coffee we should start with the etymology of the word “coffee” itself. According to Wiliam H. Ukers in his book All About Coffe (1922) the word “coffee” began to enter into European languages around the 1600s. The word is adapted from the Arabic “qahwa”. Or perhaps not directly from the Arabic term but through the Turkish term “kahveh”. In Arabic, the term “qahwa” is not intended for the name of the plant but refers to the name of the drink. In fact, there are some notes that mention the term originally referred to one type of drink from wine. There is no clear explanation since when to start used to call coffee drinks. But experts believe the word “qahwa” is used to refer to drinks made from seeds brewed with hot water.

Today’s coffee culture is a post-modern culture in the world.

There are also those who deny the term coffee is taken from Arabic. According to them, the term coffee comes from the language where the coffee plant originated the Abyssinia. Adapted from the word “kaffa” the name of a city in the Shoa area, in South Southwest Abyssinia. But this assumption is refuted because it is not supported by strong evidence. Other evidence shows in the city the coffee fruit is called by another name, “bun”. In Arabic records “bun” or “bunn” is used to refer to coffee beans instead of drinks.

From the Arabic, the term “qahwa” is adapted into other languages such as Turkish “kahve”, Dutch “koffie”, French “café”, Italian “caffè”, English “coffee”, Chinese “kia-fey”, Japanese “kehi”, and Malay language “kawa”. In fact, almost all the terms for coffee in different languages have the same sound with the Arabic term.

Especially for the case of Indonesia, most likely the word “coffee” is adapted from the Arabic term through the Dutch “koffie”. Allegations are logical because the Dutch first opened a coffee plantation in Indonesia. But did not rule out the word is adapted directly from Arabic or Turkish. Given the many parties in Indonesia who have relations with the Arabs before the Europeans came.

Legends and myths

Anyone who tries to trace the origins of coffee may find two very famous legends. The story is “Kaldi and goat” and the story of “Ali bin Omar al Shadhili”. Both legends tell the early humans to process coffee beans.

Kaldi and the goat

Kaldi and goat dancing

This story is taken from a growing legend in Ethiopia. In the past, there was a goat owner named Kaldi. One day the Kaldi found his goats hyperactive, jumping to and fro like dancing. After an investigation, it turns out the goat has been eating red berries from trees that have not been recognized. Curiously the Kaldi tried the fruit. After eating it he found himself behaving like a goat.

Kaldi reported this incident to a monk. The monk was interested in Kaldi’s story and he tried the fruit. The effect the monk feels like gets extra energy, he can wake up at night without sleepy to pray. Because the taste of this fruit is slightly bitter, other monks begin to process it by baking and brewing the fruit. Since then coffee is known to be a beverage that can provide extra strength and chase away drowsiness.

Ali bin Omar al Sadhili

The story of Ali bin Omar the inventor of coffee

It is said that in the city of Mocha, Yemen, lived a physician as well as a devoted Sufi worship, his name is Ali bin Omar al Shadhili. Omar is famous as a reliable healer who can cure illnesses by combining medical and prayer actions. But the lunge of Omar is not favored by local rulers. With a variety of intrigues, Omar rumored to ally with the devil to heal his patient. Finally, the people of Mocha drove Omar out of town.

After expelled from the city, Omar took refuge in a cave he found on the way. He began to starve and found red berries. Omar ate the fruit to ward off his hunger. Because it tastes bitter, he began to process the fruit by baking and boiling it.

But Omar’s processed beans remain inedible. He can only drink water. Unexpectedly the water he drinks gives extra strength. Long story short, water steep made Omar start famous. Many people have asked Omar. Until the phenomenon sounded the city ruler. Then Omar was called back to live in the city. The elixir of black liquid is called Mocha.

Early coffee culture

Ar-Razi cures illness with coffee

The oldest written document about coffee is found in the records of Al-Razi (850-922) a Muslim scientist who is also a medical expert. He calls a beverage whose characteristics look like coffee as bunshum. This note is reinforced by a medical expert thereafter, Ibn Sina (980-1037), who describes a seed that can be brewed and efficacious cure one of the stomach ailments. All the information given by Ibn Sina refers to the characteristics of coffee that we know today. He called the drink bunshum and seeds with the name of bun. Coffee becomes an important economic commodity in the Islamic world. The coffee drink is very popular among pilgrims in the city of Mecca, although it has been declared a prohibited drink several times. Pilgrims drink coffee to stay awake when worshiping at night.

The popularity of coffee was widespread in the days of the Ottoman Empire. In telling coffee drinks to be the main dish at every celebration in Istanbul. At this time also coffee began to be favored by the Europeans. In the early 1600s merchants in Venice bought coffee from the port of Mocha in Yemen. From this place spread to other European regions. Then in 1668 the coffee began to cross the Atlantic Ocean and arrived in New York when it was still a Dutch colony.

Mass cultivation of coffee plants

Arabs are believed to find a way of drinking coffee from Ethiopians

Almost all literature on coffee history approves the origin of coffee plants from Abyssinia, an area of Africa that once existed under the Ethiopian Empire. Today the territory covers the territories of Ethiopia and Eritrea. In the early days, all the cultivated coffee plants were a type of Arabica coffee.

From Abyssinia, coffee plants are brought and cultivated in Yemen. It is estimated that the coffee plant began cultivated in Yemen in 575. At this time the development of coffee cultivation is slow. Coffee beans are only traded out of Arabia through the port of Mocha in Yemen.

Arab traders try to protect the exclusivity by requiring the boiling of coffee beans first. With the hope that coffee beans can not be grown into plants.

Spread to South Asia and Southeast Asia

Attempts to isolate coffee beans by Arab traders were unsuccessful. In 1616 the Dutch managed to bring the coffee plant from the port of Mocha to Holand, the Netherlands. In 1658 the Dutch began trying to cultivate coffee crops in Sri Lanka. No reports of cultivation of this plant reaped great success. Known also the Europeans have tried to cultivate coffee plants in Dijon, France. But this effort failed miserably, coffee can not grow on European soil. In addition to passing the harbor turns many other entrances that allow traffic trading coffee beans. One of them through the journey of pilgrims who want to pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. In 1695 Baba Budan, a pilgrim from India managed to bring productive coffee beans out of Arabia. He cultivated a coffee plant in Chikmagalur, southern India.

In 1696 the Dutch brought coffee from Malabar, India, to the island of Java. The coffee plant comes from the beans that are brought from Yemen to Malabar. The coffee plant was planted in Kadawung, but this effort failed due to flooding.

Three years later the Dutch brought back the coffee cuttings from Malabar. This effort was successful. Coffee grows well in plantations in Java. Production results shifted the dominance of Yemeni coffee. Even then the Netherlands became the largest exporter of coffee in the world.

Spread to America and the surrounding islands

Coffee is brought to America and the surrounding islands by two doors. Beginning in 1706 when the Dutch brought coffee plants from Java to the botanical gardens in Amsterdam. From Amsterdam, the coffee plant is brought to Suriname. Others were given as gifts to King Louis XIV in Paris. In 1720 a coffee plant from Paris was brought to be planted in a French colony in the Caribbean Islands. The story of coffee plant travel is very popular. Told a coffee tree that was brought to the French ship could stay alive because watered with drinking water belonging to the officer carrier. All the coffee plants from the source in Amsterdam are known as Typica cultivars.

Another way the coffee plant goes to America via Bourbon Island, now La Reunion. The plant originated from the seed given by the Sultan of Yemen’s envoy to King Louis XIV in 1715. France received 60 coffee seeds at Bourbon. Then this seed spread to French colonies in America and other regions. This coffee plant is known as the Bourbon cultivar. Both arabica coffee cultivars, namely Typica and Bourbon are believed to be the source of coffee plants that are currently being developed in various plantations.

The history of coffee in Indonesia

The Netherlands introduced the way of coffee cultivation to the Indonesian nation

The history of coffee in Indonesia began in 1696 when the Dutch brought coffee from Malabar, India, to Java. They cultivated the coffee plantation in Kedawung, a plantation located near Batavia. But this effort failed because the plant was damaged by earthquakes and floods. The second attempt was made in 1699 by bringing the coffee tree cuttings from Malabar. In 1706 coffee samples produced from plants in Java were sent to the Netherlands for study at the Amsterdam Botanical Garden. The result was a great success, the resulting coffee has excellent quality. Furthermore, this coffee plant used as the seed for all plantations developed in Indonesia. The Netherlands also expanded the area of coffee cultivation to Sumatra, Sulawesi, Bali, Timor and other islands in Indonesia.

In 1878 there was a heartbreaking tragedy. Almost all coffee plantations in Indonesia, especially in the lowlands damaged by leaf rust disease or Hemileia vastatrix (HV). At that time all the coffee plants in Indonesia is a type of Arabica. To cope, the Netherlands brought in a species of liberica coffee that is thought to be more resistant to leaf rust disease. Until a few years, liberal coffee replaced arabica coffee in lowland plantations. In the European market, the liberal coffee at that time was appreciated equally with arabica. But apparently, the liberal coffee plant is also experiencing the same thing, damaged by leaf rust. Then in 1907, the Dutch brought in another species of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora). The effort this time is successful until now the robusta coffee plantations in the lowlands can survive. After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, the entire Dutch coffee plantation in Indonesia in the nationalization. Since then the Dutch are no longer the world’s coffee supplier.

Trading of coffee beans

Based on International Coffee Organization (ICO) records, there are 4 types of coffee that are traded globally namely arabica coffee, robusta coffee, liberica coffee and excelsa coffee. The four types of coffee come from 3 species of coffee plants. Arabica is produced by the Coffea arabica plant. Robusta produced Coffea canephora plant. While liberica and excelsa are produced by Coffea liberica plant, exactly Coffea liberica var. Liberica for coffee liberica and Coffea liberica var. Dewevrei for excelsa coffee.

Early era

In the early days, coffee was only known in Islamic societies in the Arabian peninsula. In the early 17th century coffee began to be traded out of Arabia via the port of Mocha in Yemen. Arab merchants monopolize this commodity for a long time In the 18th century, Europeans began to produce coffee outside Arabia. Until in 1720, the Dutch shifted Yemen as world coffee exporter. Dutch products obtained from coffee plantations in Java and the surrounding islands, currently Indonesia. Indonesia became the world’s largest coffee producer for almost a century. In 1830 Indonesia’s position as the largest coffee producer shifted Brazil. Until now, Brazil is the world’s largest coffee producer.

The modern era

Today coffee is grown in more than 50 countries in the world. Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia and Ethiopia are the largest coffee-producing countries. Brazil is the dominant coffee producer. The amount of coffee produces about one-third of the world’s total coffee production. By 2015 Brazil produces about 2.5 million tons of coffee beans. Coffee production in Brazil is dominated by arabica about 80%, the rest is robusta. Arabica coffee is considered better and appreciated higher than other types of coffee. Meanwhile, in 2015 Indonesia occupies the position of the four coffee-producing countries. According to the Indonesian Coffee Exporters Association (GAEKI), about 83% of Indonesia’s coffee production is from robusta and 17% arabica. Indonesia also produces coffee types of liberica and excelsa but the amount is not significant when compared to arabica and robusta.

Terjemahan : KOPI DALAM LINTASAN SEJARAH DUNIA

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