PEUCUT KHERKOFF, ACEH-DUTCH WAR MONUMENT
Witness of the Aceh-Dutch War
Background Aceh War
The Aceh-Dutch War or abbreviated Aceh War between the Sultanate of Aceh against the Dutch from 1873 to 1904. The Aceh Sultanate surrendered in January 1904, but the Acehnese resistance to guerrilla warfare continued.
The Aceh War, the most devastating war of the Dutch during the colonial period, according to Wikipedia, recorded more than 100,000 Dutch soldiers killed while on the side of Aceh ranged from 60,000 to 70,000 soldiers killed and 100,000 civilians were massacred by the Dutch. Because so many Dutch soldiers were killed in Aceh the Dutch made a cemetery complex called “Peucut.”
History of Peucut name according to Hikayat Aceh (Oral Tradition)
Before the Dutch used the compound as a cemetery for their troops killed in battle throughout Aceh, the complex had earlier been the tombs of prominent Acehnese, even there is the tomb of the son of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Meurah Pupok who was killed after serving the caning punishment by the Sultan himself.
Peucut itself that got the nickname Meurah Pupok is often called Pocut (Children’s Favor) then from time to time changed to “Peucut”. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda punish his son created a hadith maja (The phrase or proverb of Aceh) which reads: “Mate anuek mupat jirat. Gadoh adat pat tamita.” This means “Dead child is known where the grave, lost custom (law) where to look.”
The history of the founding of the Peucut Kerkhoff Grave based on Dutch records.
The “Peucut” cemetery, the name of a place where Dutch soldiers were buried in Banda Aceh, became one of the most useful research material for us in studying the state of Aceh during the Dutch colonial period through the records written on the tombs. The history of naming “Peucut” based on Dutch records is still very vague and unclear. The possibility is that the Dutch follow the naming that already exists in the Acehnese society.
To those who are interested in Aceh’s history of this paper to provide information on several things, among others: What and how and why is the tomb of the Dutch heroes called “Peucut”? As we know the present generation can barely recognize the name “Peucut”. The tomb of the Dutch heroes in Banda Aceh called Acehnese people with “kerkop” only
Perhaps we should wonder why the name “Peucut” documented by the Dutch in various writings as its own name for “Kerkhoff” in Banda Aceh, then only known as “kerkop” only, it is suspected that “Peucut” may come from the name of the tomb village of the heroes of the previous Dutch, Peucut location adjacent to the village that has now officially named Blower, which comes from the name “Belower Garden”.
The Origin of Kampong Blower
Peucut is located in Blower village in Banda Aceh City. And if the history is drawn if people tell “Peucut” by itself one should not forget the garden “Belower” derived from the name of a Jew, BOLCHOVER, at first was “Padang Nalueng lakoe” (reeds). When the Dutch came, they made this area into a field of maintenance and care of war horses (Cavalry), then purchased by Mr. Bolchover to become a plantation complex, still vaguely what estates are now leaving the name with the popular name “Belowor” or “Belower”, this name is also in Meulaboh, West Aceh because wherever there is what is called “Kebon Belowor”, formerly known as Sam Su Lo garden.
In the past Belowor gardens have a very negative connotation. When people mention the name, people directly connect the title with things related to wild sex, but thankfully now in Blower village, there has been a mosque as a meeting center and religious communities there.
Those buried in “Peucut” Kherkoff
In these tombs have been buried more than 2,200 Dutch troops, from ordinary soldiers to the Major General, from the tribes of Indonesia to the Dutch and other nations who became Dutch soldiers. Among the graves are still records that can be read names, ranks and years and where they died. Their names are carved so beautifully on the marble that is the gate wall of honor “erepoort” the tomb of the Dutch heroes.
According to the information of a retired K.N.I.L (Testimony of 1975) it is said that those who had been buried in “Peucut” were still less than one-third of all Aceh war victims on the Dutch side, because there are still many left in the grove of trees, rivers, hills, and valleys, and so on in Aceh. These places became “graves” for Dutch colonial troops who had not been “Peucut” or moved here.
From the Dutch record itself, we know that the first officer who was buried in Peucut after the official Peucut as their hero’s grave and given the gate of honor with the magnificent monument was the first lieutenant J.J.P. WEIJERMAN who died in the battle near the Siem Krueng Kalee mosque on October 20, 1883.
This is recorded in the book “DE HEL DEN SERIE”, volume 8 pages 25, with the following words: “Luitenant Weijerman was de eerste Officier die op Peucut na de oprichting van de monumentale poor ter aarde werd besteld”. It means “Lieutenant Weijrman was the first officer to be buried in Peucut after the location was completed by the gate of honor.”
Regarding the death of the lieutenant we can quote again “Krijgsgeschiedenis van N.I. volume 3 pages 352 – 353 and as follows: De hiernevesns vermelde colonne, te Lamnjong Verzameld herstelde op den 20 sten Oktober de verbroken gemeenschap en veroverde twee der stellingen, waarvan die bij Messig t Siem de voornaamste was. De volgenden dag bleek de derde stelling ontruimd te wezen en verliet de vijand zijn positie ten Zuiden van den weg naar Kroeëng Kalé. De actie had ten gevolge het sneuvelen van luitenant J.J.P- Weijerman en drie minderen, terwijl 3 officieren en 32 minderen werden ge-wond”. This means that: “This beside Kolone, gathered in Lamnyong, has restored their turbulence and can seize two fortresses, one of which is important fort Mosque. The next day it turned out that the third fortress had been abandoned and the enemy left their position south of the road to Krueng Kale. The battle resulted in the death of Lieutenant Weijerman and his three subordinates, while the wounded and others consisted of 3 officers and 32 subordinates.”
The Dutch admitted that the land of Aceh was “a burial” for their troops, from time to time since the Dutch began the war on Aceh, in the villages here we may have heard the elders once said that, “dilikót rumoh lön na djeurat kaphé” or roughly around the forest used to be the grave of Kompeuni. In the jungles of Aceh, there are many graves of Kompeuni including the grave of chain people who were forced to become their coolies in those days.
Dutch soldiers killed in battle, among others in Lhoksukon, Jeuram, Lamia, Blang Keujren, and so on. Many had been buried there, many were later dismantled, their bones alone were carried symbolically and buried again in “Peucut” as a sign of victory and splendor for the person, can be likened to his honor as a star of “Militair Willemsorde” which is famous for the abbreviation M.W O. which consists of several levels.
The Dutch are very careful to confer the heroic stars so that it becomes very honorable and respected in those days to be buried here. Most of the “Peucut” residents since the burial site was established and inaugurated until the end of Dutch rule in Aceh (March 1942) were those killed in battle, given the title of “dragers” and “dragers” from M WO, even “ridder van Oranje Nassau”, while the bronze star given is “vtev” (voor trouw en verdienste) that is because of loyalty, or service of many and or too much to the Dutch Colonial government.
The star user is sometimes an ordinary soldier, is the only one member of the troop who gets it while the commander of the troops may not be able to get a star of service, because “the system can all have to get also” is not in the Dutch dictionary.
The Sign of Love at Peucut Kherkoff
From the tombstones in the “Peucut” which are still readable, there are intimate, heartwarming writings about the intention of writing on the headstone, either from a mother to a son, or from a wife to her husband, as well as from friends and colleagues against a “krijgsmakker” (comrade in arms). All of it shows the seriousness of the Dutch to subdue Aceh.
Peucut Kherkoff Proof of Heroic Symbols
“Peucut” is not only one of the honorable gardens for the Dutch that still exists in Banda Aceh, but also a symbol of the splendor and heroism of the Acehnese who armed with a “sincere fighting spirit”, the people of Aceh is a challenge that should not be taken lightly by the Dutch because in such ancient wars the Dutch have lost some Generals among them, General Pel and General Kohler were buried in “Peucut”. Initially, General Kohler, who died on the first expedition of 1873, was buried in Jakarta, in 1978 Kohler’s body was moved from Jakarta (due to eviction) to Banda Aceh, where the graves of General Demmini and De Moulin were not buried in Peucut. All as victims of Aceh’s war on the Dutch side, which embarrasses them in the face of the international world.
The Death of the Dutch Generals in Aceh
General Kohler’s death occurred near the Great Mosque of Baiturrahman, he was hit by a bullet fired by the Acehnese warriors from a distance, the sniper shot when the Dutchman became fascinated by the unexpected accuracy of the Acehnese fire.
Then Major General J.L.J.H. Pel. was killed in Aceh Besar, around the Lamnyong bridge. The Pel’s body was buried in Peucut with a rather large and modest monument, which could still be clearly read by the name and position of the high-ranking officer when he met his death on 24/25 February 1876. According to the Dutch report, Pel suffered a breakup veins.
Know the death of Major General J.L.J.H. This mast is written on the book “De Krijgsgeschiedenis van N.I.”, volume III pages 183-184, as follows:
“Na een dag rust marcheerden de troepen den 25 sten, te 6 ure voormiddadgs, ongehinderd langs den rand van Pinang en door Langgoegoep en Tonga, naar Kroeëng Tjoet, waar zij te half elf voormiddags aankwamen. Daar opende de vijand van de overzijde het vuur op de compagnie der voorhoede, die, hoewel versterkt met 2 compagnieën en een sectie artillerie, niet in staat was dit vuur tot zwijgen te brengen. Een waadbare plaats werd niet gevonden, maar meer zuidelijk een half afgebroken brug ontdekt, die onder bescherming van laatst genoemde troepen onder het vuur des vijands door de mineurs werd hersteld.
De in actie zijnde troenen passeerden nu de lagune en verdreven de Atjehers, waarna de colonne te 4 ure namiddags het bivak aan beide zijden der kreek betrok.
Daar overleed des avonds te elf ure de Bevelhebber, general Pel, aan een Slagaderbreuk. Evenals de overste RAAFF door de overmatige inspanning van zijn krachten stierf, voordat hij zijn plannen tot bestrijding, der Padri’s had kunnen volvoeren, zo werd ook de door zijn troepen zoo hooggeschatte, dappere generaal Pel, weggenomen, voordat hij de consolidatie onzer vestiging te Atjeh overeenkomstig zijn plan ten einde had kunnen brengen.”
means in English:
“After a day of rest, the troops moved on the 25th (February 1876) at 6pm without a hitch along the edge of Pinang and through Lamgugup and Tonga (meaning Tunggai) to Krueng Cut where they arrived at half past eleven. There the enemy (meaning the Aceh army) began to open a rifle attack from the attack on the Company that moved as the front troops, although reinforced by two companies and a section of troop army that was not able to stop the Aceh attack. There is no passable place, but on the far south there is again a bridge that has been half broken/destroyed under the protection of the latter troops and now we have fixed it.
The moving troops are now passing through the shelter and dispel the Acehnese and our colonists are safely arriving at the bivouac that lies on both sides of the bay at precisely four o’clock in the afternoon.
That is where the death of our Commander-in-Chief, General Pel, at 11 pm due to the breaking or breaking of the veins (slagaderbreuk). As also the RAAFT overste met his death when it was due too tired and because of tense use of his power and his thinking before the RAAFT succeeded in carrying out his plans to root out the Padri, certainly in Minangkabau. Similarly, the death of General Pel is also highly regarded and as a brave general before he has finished carrying out his plans for the stability of our position in Aceh.”
General Demmeni (13 December 1886) and General De Moulin (July 7, 1896) died in Aceh but both officers were not found in “Peucut” and the possibility of their graves being moved to Padang or Jakarta. Their names remained only in history books but although “Peucut” did not keep their bones, the names of the high-ranking officers who led the attacks and deaths in Aceh were still clearly engraved on the Peucut erepoort.
Peucut Kherkoff Cemetery as a historical material
“Peucut” got the nickname of the Dutch writers at that time as a graveyard that is always able to provide aspirations and historical materials to every visitor especially for those who understand Dutch. The recognition of the Dutch writers was true and reasonable because of almost every grave when it can explain itself to every visitor without the need of a guide. But what’s seen in “Peucut” now? The tomb of the Heroes of Holland was not taken care of anymore. The graves were much damaged and destroyed, the writings of almost every grave had been “pricked” and the letters were deliberately scraped. And it is regrettable by the enthusiasts who visited “Peucut” that once there was a “borstbeeld” above his grave but this borstbeelden has long since disappeared since the Dutch left Aceh in March 1942.
If we can read the texts on the tombs then you will smile, not because of inhumanity to the dead Dutch soldiers, but because amused and somewhat funny you remember the wiles and strategies of the war of the people of Aceh when it was at war with the Dutch.
One is the story of Kapitein Webb
The Acehnese at that time created a “wooden bomb” somewhat similar to a modern bomb. The wood bomb created by the Acehnese in Leubeu Minyeuk (Lhoksukon) was then able to kill a Divisiecommandant Marechaussee and some of his men as they patrolled and hunted Panglima Polem who was still being chased by the Dutch in every jungle between Pidie, Pase and even Idi, wherever there was suspicion of a “de evil” by the Dutch.
Kapitein Webb suffered a head burst so that his body was not allowed to be seen by his wife. “A large piece of a log” has been hung by a Panglima Polem soldier above a wooden tree that Webb has crossed with his men, there (on the tree) has been willing to fight the soldiers of Aceh to cut the rattan binder “bomb” is a small enemy troop pass through. The bomb fell and the head of Webb burst into flames and broke out instantly. According to the Dutch, the Acehnese soldiers always had people willing to die to kill more and more powerful enemies, but the gratitude of the man who cut the ropes was safe and returned safely to his army by producing a victim on the side of the enemy that was not small. This is history, not just Webb stories, there are thousands of other Dutch soldiers rested in “Peucut”.
The Story of Lieutenant H.P. De Bruyn who died in Seunagan (West Aceh) in 1902
A teenage lieutenant and brave De Bruijn then married at the palace of the Dutch governor-general in Aceh (formerly), but he chose to “Peucut” instead of being a “bride”. For the Dutch, he was considered valiant.
De Bruyn was an officer with the rank of first Dutch lieutenant assigned in Seunangan (West Aceh), he received direct orders from Van Heutsz (Dutch Governor in Aceh at that time) himself. Van Heutsz will also marry De Bruyn with a girl’s daughter a middle officer, the marriage will take place at the residence of Van Heutsz, the governor’s pavilion now.
Unfortunate for De Bruyn because he and most of his men were successfully wiped out by the Aceh fighters from Seunagan with a famous “klewangaanval”. De Bruijn suffered too many strokes so he could not be treated again. He boldly told the doctor who would take care of him on the battlefield (Seunagan): “Dokter, laat mij maar liggen, ik ga toch dood. Help liever de arme marechaussee’s!” (Doctor, let me this, I will die. Better doctors to help other poor soldiers!).
Heard such De Bruijn’s words. one of the other lieutenants approached De Bruijn’s wounded and bloodied body whispering into his ear if he had other messages. So with great difficulty Bruijn continued his will: “zeg aan mijn moeder dat ik mijn plicht heb gedaa!” (Tell my mother that I have fulfilled my duties!).
He did not remember and was not affected by his fiancee. Before he breathed his last breath, he uttered sincere words of satisfaction for their cause: “zeg aan mijn moeder, dat ik mijn best heb gedaan!” (Tell my mother that I have fulfilled my duties!). Just before death, he still remembered his mother and his duties as a soldier who was on duty. And it is not impossible that even many of them are calling for: “Leve de Koningin!” (live the Queen!)
The De Bruijn’s wound that caused his death was a spear wound (lanssteek) on his stomach, the first wound speared from a distance after he collapsed without being able to give resistance, he was bombarded with a ghastly chop. This happened around 1902 in Seunagan / West Aceh.
When De Bruijn’s body arrived at Ulee Lheu by ship from the Dutch Government, his arrival was actually to be the bride or “king of a day” while his fiancee was preparing to wear the wedding dress sent from Java by his father.
Van Heutsz firmly said to the bride: “My daughter De Bruijn has arrived but she is more important “Rest in Peucut” than sitting with you right now”. We can guess how disturbing the plight of Van Heutsz’s residence was This is a piece of history that “Peucut” can tell every visitor that if it is not broken.
Aceh Pungo and Death of two Dutch soldiers who are fond of researching Acehnese culture, Scheepens and Schmidt.
Lieutenant colonel (overste) SCHEEPENS, a well-known researcher on Aceh, as well as SCHMIDT who was also killed in Sigli in 1913. On the monument, we will remember how ridiculous Death Overste Scheepens, whereas he had previously received rather severe injuries in various battles in the thicket of Aceh, and he survived. The injury that caused his death from rencong stabbing suddenly, and never expected when he was presiding over a small trial in Sigli. The man who stabbed him was Uleebalang Titeu who died instantly also chopped up by police agents duty around the office where the trial took place.
Before that incident, Aceh was known by the Dutch as one of the strange areas called “Gekke Atjehsche” or better known as “Atjeh Moorden”
Aceh Pungo is a desperate act of a person attacking the Dutch regardless of whether he is a soldier, an adult, even a girl even a child. This action is done anywhere, in the streets, in the barracks, or in the gardens. This was the result of the Dutch violence in the Aceh war, causing deep hatred and resentment for the families of the remaining Acehnese fighters, more so because of their son, son-in-law, relatives or relatives who had fallen victim to the malignancy of the Dutch.
The victims were not necessarily Dutch, sometimes other white people who were thought to be Dutch. The victims of Aceh Pungo di Sigli, among others, a female tourist from the United States named Mrs. Mary Ware has promised Scheepens to be given the best service as she is looking for materials to write the book “FOREIGN COUNTRY THROUGH FOREIGN EYES”.
Kapitein CHARLES EMILE SCHMID, commander of the 5th Division Korp Marsose in Lhoksukon on 10 July 1933 died silly unexpectedly on a sunny morning in the military training ground in Lhokukon. Schmid was looking at a small group of soldiers practicing in the morning. He left the field to go home but suddenly he saw an Acehman passing by while giving “tabek” a greeting as the Acehnese custom of honoring the Dutch. The “Tabek” of the person was reciprocated by the captain but unexpectedly, as the hand of the honorable man descended, so rencong anchored to his body and caused a deadly wound. Schmid was carried away but was immediately assisted by some soldiers and he was taken to the hospital, but he could not be helped anymore. Schmid is now one of Peucut’s inhabitants.
According to Dutch sources, the man who stabbed Schmid in Lhoksukon was declared “a man who has tired of life” and sought martyrs, his name is Amat Leupon. He was killed by a soldier Asa Baoek who “for his service and courage” got a bronze cross.
The phenomenon of Aceh Pungo
This typical Aceh killing between 1910 – 1920 has occurred as many as 79 times with victims on the Dutch side 12 dead and 87 injured, while on the 49th Aceh killed. The peak of this murder took place in 1913, 1917, and 1928 that is up to 10 each year. While in 1933 and 1937 respectively 6 and 5 times. The number of victims in the Dutch war in Aceh for ten years at the beginning of XX century (1899-1909) as mentioned by Paul Van’t Veer in his book De Atjeh Oorlog is not less than 21,865 people of Aceh. In other words, that figure is almost 4 percent of the total population at that time. This figure after 5 years later (1914) rose to 23,198 souls and reckoned all casualties (from the Aceh and the Netherlands) in the period is almost the same as that has fallen during the war of 1873 – 1899.
This is not to mention the victims who fell after 1914 to 1942. While at the end of November 1933 two Dutch children playing in Taman Sari Kutaradja (now Banda Aceh) were also victims of this Acehnese murder.
The typical Aceh killing is a stance of the spontaneity of the people who are depressed due to violence committed by the Dutch troops of Marsose. This attitude is also imbued with the spirit of Sabil war teachings for poh kaphe (kafir killing). In addition, there is also a desire to get martyrdom. And to take revenge which in Aceh terms is called tueng bila, a term that describes how furious the Acehnese people have.
Due to the murderous killings committed by the people of Aceh is causing Dutch officials who will be assigned to Aceh think many times. And there are those who do not want to include his family (wife-child) when assigned to Aceh. In fact, there is a repatriate to the Netherlands. Dutch officials in Aceh always imagine and think about the dangers of Atjeh Moorden.
They can not understand how, just with a single person and armed with rencong tucked in blankets or clothes of Aceh fighters dare to attack the Dutch people, even the Dutch barracks even though. Therefore, among the Dutch people who declared the act “crazy” as impossible for a sane person, there was a term among the Dutch who called it Gekke Atjehsche (Acehnese crazy), which became popular with Aceh Pungo (Aceh Crazy).
To study it the Dutch conducted a psychological study of the people of Aceh. In the research involved Dr. R.H. Kern, a government adviser on indigenous and Arab affairs, the results of this study suggest that the act (Atjeh Moorden) includes symptoms of mental illness. A conclusion that may contain truth, but there may also be mistakes, given the phenomena which are unattainable by the foundations of scientific thought in Atjeh Moorden. According to R.H. Kern what the people of Aceh are doing is a feeling of dissatisfaction because they have been oppressed by the Dutch because his soul will remain against the Dutch.
With the conclusion that many people are mentally ill in Aceh, the Dutch government then established a mental hospital in Sabang. Dr. Latumenten who became head of Mental Hospital in Sabang then also conducted a study of the perpetrators of assassination typical of Aceh which by their Dutch government was alleged to have been infected with neurological or insane. But the results of research Dr. The latumenten indicates that all the perpetrators are normal people. And that encourages them to commit such desperate deeds is due to the nature of a vengeance to the Dutch-owned that is tueng bila (Revenge). Therefore, all violent acts should not be perpetrated against the people of Aceh.
Furthermore, the Dutch East Indies government implemented a new policy known as advanced politics of ideas by C. Snouck Hurgronje. Something politics that shows the peaceful nature in which the Dutch show a gentle attitude to the people of Aceh, they no longer act only by relying on violence, but with other efforts that can generate popular sympathy.
At Peucut Kherkoff There are Many Mass Graves
In “Peucut” seen by you the rather wide fields in it, impressed that the fields were not contained, uninhabited underneath. Nee, by Zentgraaff and Van Goudoever in their book Sumatraantjes mentioned that it is a “graven mass” or a gigantic cemetery of marechaussee who was buried simply. There are also tombs marked with cross bars or ordinary stones but now many have been “swallowed by the time” until they become common ground. Every nearly every inch of Peucut is full of graves, as mentioned by Zentgraaff and Van Goudoever.
Buried in Peucut Kherkoff is a pride for the Dutch people who once served in Aceh
Not a few Dutch people who had served in Aceh who declared if he died, to be buried dï “Peucut” (Aceh) in the middle of all friends arms. One example of this problem is the last Dutch Governor of Aceh and the famous name is A. Ph. VAN AKEN who died in Jakarta on April 1, 1936, in his position as a member of the Dutch Indies Council. His will was fulfilled by the Dutch East Indies government and the Dutch community at that time, so until now his grave is found in “Peucut” on his grave there is the inscription “The monument is donated by the people of Aceh”. Van Aken was a “rather favored” Dutch colonist in Aceh, who at the time was due to his efforts to repair the Grand Mosque dome in Banda Aceh by adding from one dome to three using the cost of “Rubberfonds” in 1936 before he was transferred to Jakarta and died.
Peucut Kherkoff as a memento for Aceh
Peucut included an area affected by the Aceh Tsunami on 26 December 2004. Although the tsunami resulted in the loss of 50 cross bars as a sign of the grave in general Peucut was able to withstand the disaster.
Safe and sustaining “Peucut” is not only an advantage to the Dutch and a bond of friendship after a long period of hostility between the two nations but also “Peucut” it will be a fact that can talk about the heroism of the people of Aceh in the past.
Since the death of General Kohler, symbolically the first Dutchman to die in Aceh (though not the first Kohler killed but many other soldiers) in 1873 to the death of Kapitein A J. Haga in a rebellion in Lhoong in 1933, in “Peucut” it is always “someone who enters” at least within a week of one or more people. And this also causes the Dutch to always recognize that among the conquered areas of Indonesia, Aceh is the most difficult to secure and reconcile until they label Aceh “een fanatiek volk” or a nation that embraces stupid “fanaticism”.
Such stamp could have been done by Dutch Colonial but behind there, of course, there are also people who can understand that maintaining the hometown and even a homeland is a noble act. Zentgraaff in comparing the Acehnese with the Dutch, his own people once wrote in his book ATJEH: “nief alle Hollanders zijn helden en niet aüe Atjehcrs zijn verraders!” which means “not all the Dutch are heroes, nor are all the Acehnese belonging to traitors!”
The tomb of the Dutch Heroes “Peucut” is a testament to the memorable and respected history of Acehnese heroes. We can see that Peucut is not just a collection of dead tombstones, but is a living monument that explains the persistence of the spirit of the knights and the heroics of the Acehnese in challenging the occupation.
Peucut explains, not only how great the resistance of the Acehnese people against the Dutch colonialism, but has shown that the Dutch pay a high price for their presence in Aceh. We must honor and preserve these historical monuments in order to remain a great deal and a warning for posterity that our ancestors have sacrificed much for freedom.
- TJOETJE : “PEUCUT” MEMBUKA TABIR SEDJARAH KEPAHLAWANAN RAKJAT ATJEH;
- Hooyer’s: “DE KRIJGSGESCHIEDENIS VAN NED. INDIE” – DEEL III.
- Zentgraaf’s: “ATJEH”.
- Du Croo’s & Schmidt’s: “GENERAAL SWART, PACIFICATOR VAN ATJEH” ;
- GEDENKBOEK KORPS MARECHAUSSEE ATJEH 1390-1940 (susunan majoor Doup);
- ZENTGRAAFF/VAN GOUDOEVER’s “SUMATRAANTJES”;
- SAID’s “ATJEH SEPANDJANG ABAD”;
- MAJALAH ANGKATAN DARAT BELANDA “ONS LEGER” edisi Maret 1972.
- DE HELDEN-SERIE-ATJEHSCH LEGER MUSEUM-1940
- Paul Van’t Veer; De Atjeh Oorlog
- CUMBOK WAR, A SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN ACEH (1946-1947)
- ACEH THE FIRST SOVEREIGN COUNTRY TO RECOGNIZE THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE NETHERLANDS
- CIVILIZATION WITHOUT WRITING
- DUTCH RAID OPERATION AGAINST CUT MEUTIA (1910)
- SAMUDERA PASAI AS THE FIRST ISLAMIC KINGDOM IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
- ISLAMIC SHARIAH WHO IS AFRAID, A CASE STUDY IN ACEH
- ACEH WOMEN FULL POWER
- GOLD, INFIDELS, AND DEATH
- HOW TO TELL HISTORY OF ACEH
- THE ORIGIN OF THE COFFEE CULTURE IN ACEH
- THE UNTOLD STORY OF HISTORY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA IN ACEH PROVINCE
- WHEN CRITICISM IS FORBIDDEN
- EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES, WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR ACEH
- PEUCUT KERKHOFF, ACEH-DUTCH WAR MONUMENT
- THE PRICE OF FREEDOM; THE UNFINISHED DIARY OF TENGKU HASAN DI TIRO