ACEH CRAZY OR ACEH PUNGO
DEFINITION ACEH PUNGO
Aceh Pungo (Bahasa Indonesia: Aceh Gila) is known in Dutch by the name of Aceh Moorden. The word “Pungo” is an ancient word that is equivalent to the Acehnese language meaning “crazy” is a term used when a person does things beyond reasonable limits.
The morphology of the meaning of Aceh Pungo is a typical Aceh killing that the Acehnese themselves call it poh kaphe (killing the infidels). Here the warriors of Aceh no longer wage war together or in groups, but individually.
It was desperate to attack Dutchmen whether he was a soldier, an adult, a woman or a child even being targeted for murder. And this daring act of killing is done anywhere on the street, in markets, in parks or in barracks alone.
This title was popularized by a Dutch researcher named R.A Kern, as for the origin of this phrase we can browse from the following historical records:
BACKGROUND OF ACEH WAR
The Dutch War in Aceh that began in 1873 to the beginning of the XX century is not yet over. Various attempts were made to end the war that has caused many casualties, both on the side of Aceh and the Dutch itself. Towards the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century, the Dutch carried out an act of violence through an elite force they called het corps marechaussee (marsose troops).
By means of this violence, the Dutch expected the people or the fighters to be afraid and to stop the Dutch resistance. But what happened? The consequences of such acts of violence have generated immense hatred and resentment for the remaining Acehnese warriors, more so for their families to leave, father, son, son-in-law, relatives or relatives who have been victimized by the Dutch. According to a moderate estimate, the total victims of the Aceh-Dutch War have eliminated a quarter of the Acehnese population at the time.
ACEH PUNGO IS REACTION
To reply to the violence carried out by the Dutch, the Acehnese fighters made a way which was later termed by the Dutch under the name Atjeh Moorden or het is een typische Atjeh Moord a typical Acehnese murder that the Acehnese themselves call him poh kaphe (killing the infidels). Here the warriors of Aceh no longer wage war together or in groups, but individually. It was desperate to attack Dutchmen whether he was a soldier, an adult, a woman or a child even being targeted for murder. And this daring act of killing is done anywhere on the street, in markets, in parks or in military barracks.
This typical Aceh killing between 1910 – 1920 has occurred as much as 79 times with the victims on the Dutch side 12 dead and 87 wounded, while on the Acehnese side 49 people were killed. The peak of this murder took place in 1913, 1917, and 1928 that is up to 10 each year. While in 1933 and 1937 respectively 6 and 5 times. The number of victims in the Dutch war in Aceh for ten years at the beginning of XX century (1899-1909) as mentioned by Paul Van’t Veer in his book De Atjeh Oorlog is not less than 21.865 people of Aceh. In other words, that figure is almost 4 percent of the total population at that time. This figure after 5 years later (1914) rose to 23,198 people and counted all the fatalities (from the Aceh and the Netherlands) in the period is almost the same as that has fallen during the war of 1873 – 1899.
This is not to mention the victims who fell after 1914 to 1942. While at the end of November 1933 two Dutch children playing in Taman Sari Kutaradja (now Banda Aceh) were also victims of this Acehnese murder.
The typical Aceh killing is a stance of the spontaneity of the people who are depressed due to violence committed by the Dutch troops. This attitude is also imbued with the spirit of holy war teachings for poh kaphe (killing the infidels). In addition, there is also a desire to get martyrdom. And to take revenge which in Aceh terms is called tuengbila, a term that illustrates how fervently expels the invaders possessed by the people of Aceh.
Due to the murderous killings committed by the people of Aceh is causing Dutch officials who will be assigned to Aceh think many times. And there are those who do not want to include his family (wife-child) when assigned to Aceh. In fact there is a repatriate to the Netherlands. Dutch officials in Aceh always imagine and think about the dangers of Atjeh Moorden.
DUTCH RESEARCH ABOUT ACEH PUNGO
They can not understand how, just with a single person and armed with rencong tucked in blankets or clothes of Aceh fighters dare to attack the Dutch people, even the Dutch barracks even though. Therefore, among the Dutch people who declared the act “crazy” as impossible for a sane person, there was a term among the Dutch calling it Gekke Atjehsche (Acehnese madman), which became popular as Aceh pungo.
To study it the Dutch conducted a psychological study of the people of Aceh. In the research involved Dr. R.H. Kern, a government adviser on indigenous and Arab affairs, the results of this study suggest that the act (Atjeh Moorden) includes symptoms of mental illness. A conclusion that may contain truth, but there may also be mistakes, given the phenomena which are unattainable by the foundations of scientific thought in Atjeh Moorden. According to R.H. Kern what the people of Aceh are doing is a feeling of dissatisfaction because they have been oppressed by the Dutch because it will remain against the Dutch.
THE FAMOUS ACEH PUNGO VICTIMS
Lieutenant colonel (overste) SCHEEPENS, a well-known researcher on Aceh, as well as SCHMIDT who was also killed in Sigli in 1913. On the monument, we will remember how ridiculous Death Overste Scheepens, whereas he had previously received rather severe injuries in various battles in the thicket of Aceh, and he survived. The injury that caused his death from rencong stabbing suddenly, and never expected when he was presiding over a small trial in Sigli. The man who stabbed him was Uleebalang (landlord) Titeu who died instantly also chopped up by police agents who served around the office where the trial took place.
Prior to that incident, Aceh was known by the Dutch as one of the strange areas called “Gekke Atjehsche” or better known as “Atjeh Moorden” (Aceh Pungo, Aceh or Aceh Gila; Indonesia) Aceh Pungo is a desperate act of an attack against the Dutch regardless of whether he is a soldier, an adult, even a girl even a child. This action is done anywhere, in the streets, in the barracks, or in the gardens. This was the result of the Dutch violence in the Aceh war, causing deep hatred and resentment for the surviving relatives of Acehnese survivors, more so because of their son, son-in-law, relatives or tribe who had become the malignancy of the Dutch.
The victim was not necessarily Dutch, sometimes other white people who were thought to be Dutch. The victims of Aceh Pungo di Sigli, among others, a female tourist from the United States named Mrs. Mary Ware has promised Scheepens to be given the best service as she is looking for materials to write the book “FOREIGN COUNTRY THROUGH FOREIGN EYES”.
Kapitein CHARLES EMILE SCHMID, commander of the 5th Division Korp Marsose in Lhoksukon on 10 July 1933 died silly unexpectedly on a sunny morning in the military training ground in Lhokukon. Schmid was looking at a small group of soldiers practicing in the morning. He left the field to go home but suddenly he saw an Acehman passing by while giving “tabek” a greeting as the Acehnese custom of honoring the Dutch. The man’s Tabek was reciprocated by the captain but unexpectedly, as the hand of the honorable man came down, so rencong anchored to his body and caused a deadly wound. Schmid was carried away but was immediately assisted by some soldiers and he was taken to the hospital, but he could not be helped anymore. Schmid is now one of Peucut’s inhabitants.
According to Dutch sources, the man who stabbed Schmid in Lhoksukon has declared a “man who has tired of life” and sought martyrs, his name is Amat Leupon. He was killed by a soldier Asa Baoek who “for his service and courage” got a bronze cross.
COLONIAL GOVERNMENT STEPS TO PREVENT “ACEH PUNGO”
With the conclusion that many people are mentally ill in Aceh, the Dutch government then established a mental hospital in Sabang. Dr. Latumenten who became head of Mental Hospital in Sabang then also conducted a study of the perpetrators of the Aceh assassination that by the Dutch government they are alleged to have been infected with neurological or insane. But the results of research Dr. The latumenten indicates that all the perpetrators are normal people. And that encourages them to commit such desperate deeds is due to the nature of a vengeance to the Dutch-owned that is tuengbila (Revenge). Therefore, all violent acts should not be perpetrated against the people of Aceh.
Furthermore, the Dutch East Indies government implemented a new policy known as advanced politics of ideas by C. Snouck Hurgronje. Something politics that shows the peaceful nature in which the Dutch show a gentle attitude to the people of Aceh, they no longer act only by relying on violence but with other efforts that can generate popular sympathy.
Translate From: ACEH PUNGO (ACEH GILA)
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- ACEH WOMEN FULL POWER; 13 June 2017;
- DUSK IN MALACCA; 4 July 2017;
- GOLD, INFIDELS, AND DEATH; 10 July 2017;
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- HOW TO TELL HISTORY; 14 August 2017;
- THE ORIGIN OF THE COFFEE CULTURE IN ACEH; 19 August 2017;
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- EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES, WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR ACEH; 5 November 2017;
- PEUCUT KHERKOFF, ACEH-DUTCH WAR MONUMENT; 12 November 2017;
- THE PRICE OF FREEDOM; 5 December 2017;
- ACEH CRAZY OR ACEH PUNGO; 25 February 2018;