Profile of Aceh people in colonial times


Versi Bahasa Indonesia

When the distinction of being profane, that’s when the massacre began. The civil war vibrating with anger depicts hatred. Inevitably destruction vile and opportunistic theft is common. Over the last five decades, the black history of this country was forgotten and left behind, this is the dark reality of Aceh that the perpetrators themselves consider this story too dark, the social revolution. Cumbok war.

Background of the Pacific War

Japan emerged as the new force in East Asia that could win the British-ruled Malaya peninsula. Since the enactment of the Meiji Restoration in Japan by Emperor Hirohito, the Samurai country continues to hold its territory westward expansion of Asia so as to collide with Western powers that had conquered the small kingdoms of Asia. Japan managed to propagandize the people of Asia, including Aceh as the elder brother of Asia and the savior of this Asian nation, won the hearts of public figures and political Aceh is part of the group Entire Aceh Ulama Association (PUSA) and the commander of Aceh (Uleebalang). The nomads of Sumatra, particularly Aceh on the Malay Peninsula who had witnessed the miracle and courage of the Japanese soldiers were immediately captivated by the grandeur of the samurai forces.

One of them is Syed Abu Bakar (1915-1985), a former teacher of Islamic Education Madrasah Seulimum who since 1941 has been moved into a religion teacher at a Madrasah in Yan, Kedah. He kept trying to make contact with the Japanese military authorities to join forces with those who would invade Aceh. (Sayid Abu Bakar (Alaydrus is highborn Arab who was born in Kampung Jawa, Kutaraja in 1915. He was a close friend of Ali Hasjmy While studying at the Madrasah Thawalib Sumatra, West Sumatra.) Syed Abu Bakar managed to make contact with the Japanese military government, through Major Fujiwara who has a special mission to build a fifth column F.Kikan (Fujiwara Kikan) in Taiping, appointed by Japan to recruit more immigrants Aceh and Sumatra immigrants to want to join the column leads. these migrants are successfully recruited by Sayid Abu Bakar, the then trained as a secret agent under the guidance of Masubuchi Sahei (he is a former trader who has settled in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula for 20 years because he was very fluent in Malay and even wrote a dictionary Japanese-Malay. on September 20, 1941, he joined the fifth column F.Kikan. During the Japanese population in Aceh, he plays an important role due to the various positions he occupied. Thanks to the good relationship between the Japanese immigrants here, and assisted by the Acehnese people who already do not believe anymore in the Dutch East Indies government, Samurai forces finally managed to infiltrate Aceh and repulsed the Dutch troops into the countryside.

Since that time, Aceh entered a new phase under the population of Japan and managed to repel the Dutch government and dissolve zelfbestuurders (Government of the Autonomous) formed by the Dutch East Indies win the nomads Aceh dominated by clerics and some commanders were present, at infiltrating the Japanese soldiers to their homeland and expel the Dutch invaders, do not have the full support of the majority zelfbestuurders (Autonomous Government) formed by the Dutch East Indies. Zelfbestuurders be occupied by this warrior class of panic because of the Japanese victory, their position as petty kings in the region will participate robbed. Moreover, Japan entering Aceh was fully supported by scholars and political rivals of the Uleebalang in Aceh. Meanwhile, Japan’s military ruler who holds full authorization in Aceh does not want to bother with disputes both the political elite. They even used this opportunity to take a class to win his second caution of the Greater East Asia War.

Isa Sulaiman wrote, in the governing of Aceh, Military Government enforces government policy by not using local elites indirectly. Some of the nobles who were sympathetic to F.Kikan like Nyak Arief T., T. M. Ali Panglima Polem, T. Cut Hasan (1900-1946), and T. Ahmad Jeunieb entrusted to guntyo (head region) and previously held by the Dutch. Due to the number of guntyo reaching 21 units, then the commander of influence, including T. M. Hasan Glumpang Payong, T. M. David Cumbok, T. and T. Meureudu Mahmud Chik Chik M. Daudsyah promoted to guntyo in the region. Only Sayid Abu Bakar and Marah Husein, Muhammadiyah activists in Tapak Tuan who obtain positions of F. Kikan guntyo non-Uleebalang. They each became guntyo in Bakongan and Singkil. While that does not get a position Uleebalang is restored back to its original position as the son tyo. The position of the district chief in his new position guntyo and son tyo no more as an instrument of military power by T. Idris, a former gun tyo Bakongan, Bireuen guntyo 1943-1944 and 1945-March 1946 were divided as “guntyo as foreman I and Sun tyo as Foreman II.”

The Uleebalang who have gained promotion as guntyo in the Japanese occupation, his future in making fun of the scholars who are members of F. Kikan. They laugh at the religious scholars because it has not been appointed as a military administrative officer. Kikan F. whereas the activists have been very instrumental and worked hard for Japan. In fact, T.M. Hasan Glumpang Payong, Cut Hasan T., and T. M. David Cumbok had given a report on the Kempeitai (secret police) who are cornered leaders Entire Aceh Ulama Association (PUSA). As a result, some clerical leaders such as Tgk. M. Daud Beureueh, Tgk. A. Wahab Seulimum, T. M. Amin, Tgk. A. Husin Al Mujahid and Abu Bakar were interrogated by the Kempeitai Adamy, although they can defend themselves.

“In a situation of suspicion, intimate relationship that exists between a person or group with Japan has responded with suspicion by their opponents. It is said again when out something Military Ruler policies or actions that harm their interests. Because in the view of the birth of the injured party policy was not separated from the lobby of their opponents, “said Isa Sulaiman in his book, History of Aceh page 102. Tensions between the two rival groups were increasingly triggered when cannibalizing Military Authorities hulubalang police and justice powers through the establishment of the district court (hoin ku) and the religious courts (kadhi tyo) in each area commander at the beginning of 1944.

Isa Sulaiman said the wisdom that prejudiced the position they’ve certainly got a strong reaction from the group Uleebalang. T. Nyak Arief, chairman of the Aceh Syu Sangi Kai and T. M. Hasan Glumpang Payong, at that time held the post guntyo Kutaraja / deputy chairman of the Aceh Syu Sangi Kai strongly protested to the Military Government (Gunseikanbu).

The reaction of the Ulee Balang also occurs at lower levels. Courts that have been confirmed by the Japanese with Ibnu Saadan served as a judge on Tiho Hoin Sigli (1943-1944), lodged by M. Daud Cumbok T. and T. M. Hasan Glumpang Payong the Kempeitai Sigli. He allegedly has a close relationship with konteler Lameulo. As a result, Ibnu Saadan was arrested (1944) and the new can escape punishment after the intervention of TGK. M. Daud Beureueh. The dissatisfaction of the commanders of this, of course, was fully devoted to Japan’s military government because all the policies that are applied are very detrimental to them. So in 1944, the Ulee Balang, embittered at the Nippon government immerse in the underground movement organized by O. Treffers (former Assistant Resident Aceh Besar). At the end of 1944, many were arrested by the Kempeitai Uleebalang due to reports of their political opponents. These commanders were arrested and fully involved in the underground movement. Those who have positions in the administrative structure of the military government was replaced because it was considered a traitor and was replaced by their relatives who are loyal to the radical group.

Shifting Power and Japan’s defeat.

Japan’s defeat of the allies with the atomic bomb in Nagasaki and Hiroshima by the United States, was only recently recognized officially by the people of Aceh on August 25, 1945. The events of Japan’s defeat, of course, were very influential on the leaders of Aceh that have too much relationship and cooperation with Japan. Instead, commanders were highly disadvantaged by the policies of the military government, the country welcomed the defeat of the sunrise by forming the Comite van ontvangst (reception committee) in the Netherlands which will be returned to rule Aceh. One thing that is the very credibility of the Acehnese of course, is because it was too pleased with the victory of a foreign power which is actually the colonizers.

The main actor split Ulama and Uleebalang

Uleebalangs believed to be zelfbestuurders at the time of the empire are ‘kings’ small absolute. They held sway for generations on behalf of the sultan. But the longer the power held by this Uleebalang, bonding them to become weak and then decide and separate themselves from the sovereign government secretly. Secession is certainly easier for the invaders that enter Aceh to affect the small kings. Previous uleebalangs fought shoulder to shoulder with scholars of Dutch colonists, gradually changing and impartially and loyalty to the Netherlands. While scholars have never received “the Dutch” was. Therefore, it is not surprising that in March 1942 when the uprising against the Dutch and scholars who joined the Entire Aceh Ulama Association (PUSA) permits and worked with Japan to enter Aceh. These factors continue to exacerbate relations between the two sides. Cleric finally made the decision to fight uleebalang with the intention of abolishing the system of feudal rule together with the Dutch power when the Pacific War broke out. (El Ibrahimy, Role Tgk. M. Daud Beureueh in upheaval Aceh).

Daud Beureueh along the Aceh Ulama

The news of the proclamation of Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945 to Aceh in September through a wire sent by A.K Gani, Commissioner of the Central Government to Sumatra in Palembang, got a cool reception from some uleebalang. They even booed the proclamation and intend to blow it. (Abdullah Arif in his Around Betrayal Cumbok). Actions are taken by the uleebalangs eventually led to a final agreement for the scholars to combat these zelfbestuurders openly. Beginning at the time the Japanese surrendered their weapons, dated December 4, 1946, in Sigli. In the event of bloodshed in fighting the Japanese guns, between scholars and uleebalang. Although the battle was extinguished by the local government that has been formed since Indonesia’s independence on December 6, the dispute between the two sides continues. This event is known as the Cumbok War.

Chronology of the War Cumbok

El ibrahimy wrote in his testimony that in Pidie which became the center of power from two different groups, often occur conflicts between uleebalang scholars. After Japan’s defeat in August 1945, one hundred more uleebalang who ruled Aceh for centuries of absolute monarchy small type under the protection of the Dutch become involved in the defeat.

November 1945, the political climate in this area is getting hot. The main factor is the cause of David T. Cumbok who cannot adapt to the new situation due to the onset of the proclamation of Indonesian independence. David T. Cumbok cs wants Japan to surrender its weapons to them with consideration for the Japanese are their best friend. Additionally, when Japan was still in power it never promised to give independence to the people of Indonesia. This is what inspired David T. Cumbok to take the Japanese weapons as their good faith in the struggle of Indonesia. While T. Nyak Arief as a resident of Aceh was upset when the arms would fall into the hands of the people because the security situation is still unstable. He sent emissaries to Sigli to meet the Japanese and ask them, to surrender their weapons to the People’s Security Army (TKR) as the official army of the government of Indonesia.

The Japanese were met by the Aceh resident envoy who objected perform a quick handover of weapons. They are based on the instructions Iino, a former governor of the Japanese Military Administration in Aceh, will continue to maintain a disagreement between scholars and uleebalang. Even should be sharpened in order to distract the attention and pressure the people of Aceh for Japanese troops concentrated in Banda Aceh, to be dispatched back to Japan. On the basis of the instruction, Iino im Muramoto makes the calculation that the balance of power (balance of power) between two competing factions was to be preserved. Therefore, according to calculations power uleebalangs Muramoto at the end of November rather weak, in secret, he ordered to hand over a dozen guns at the party accepted by T. Tjut Hasan, Gunco Sigli. On the other hand, Muramoto promised separately to each party later on December 4, the new Japanese weapons will be left entirely. Last week of November, the tension culminated in Pidie District. Approximately 200 people from the armed followers of uleebalang Pidie, T. Pakeh Sulaiman, secretly at midnight entered the town of Sigli. All the way into the city was blockaded and all strategic places the occupied. Lam Meulo came also to the other mass incorporated in Cap Anchor Army under the leadership of T. Abdullah Titeu and Tumbak Cap Army under the leadership of T. Sarong Peudada. According to some authors, wrote El Ibrahimy, uleebalang goal enter the town of Sigli in order to precede the clergy and PRI control of weapons that will be delivered by the Japanese on December 4. But in fact, the Japanese seizure of weapons is done for the sake of their cause in accordance with the plans that have been prepared.

On the other hand, the PRI led by Hasan Ali and Husin Sab mobilize their followers along with thousands of people from Garot and Gigieng to encircle the town of Sigli. Similarly, the residency Aceh. T. Nyak Arif sends Sjamaun Gaharu with a small force of TKR to try to find a solution. Also participated in the event Polem T. Panglima Mohd. Ali, Deputy Resident representing the Government of Aceh, and T. Djohan Meuraxa as Deputy Governor of Sumatra. They have succeeded in getting the Japanese soldiers to surrender their weapons to the authorities (in this case the Indonesian government). Seeing the unfavorable situation, Nippon eventually hand over all their weapons to TKR with several agreements, among which guarantees the safety of life and property of the Japanese army, which was entirely in the hands of the Indonesian government. Prior to this agreement being signed, the TKR through Sjamaun Gaharu at 03.00 met leaders of the PRI / PUSA at the center of thousands of people outside the town of Sigli. The meeting was intended to persuade them to disperse because the issue of weapons of Japan that triggered the conflict has been resolved by the legitimate government. In other words, they fear the weapons will fall into the hands of the uleebalangs Japan will not happen again. But amid the mediation conducted by this TKR, suddenly from the direction uleebalang gathered in front of the house T. Pakeh Sulaiman, Pidie uleebalang gunfire sounded three times directed toward the demonstrators. Things became hot back. Many people who are outside the town of Sigli were shot. TKR party who is at the demonstrators and armed people finally replied to these shots. Avoid wars ensued. A total of 50 people or less become victims. The dominance of the PRI and PUSA Padang Tiji and T. Rizal one TKR members who were in a crowd of demonstrators PRI and aide Sjamaun Gaharu. Anticipating opposition parties uleebalang and do peace, Resident Aceh back sent a detachment of Kutaraja TKR. However, this TKR unstoppable army duty by the attitude of people in Seulimum who disarm them. The resident of Aceh was not losing my mind. He re-sent the Special Police to Sigli with T. Hamid Anwar, Ka. Staf TKR in Kutaraja. The deployment of the secret police managed to calm the situation. The parties concerned are willing to negotiate and on December 6, 1945, a decision was reached to make peace.

Resident Aceh back sent a detachment of Kutaraja TKR. However, this TKR unstoppable army duty by the attitude of people in Seulimum who disarm them. The resident of Aceh was not losing my mind. He re-sent the Special Police to Sigli with T. Hamid Anwar, Ka. Staf TKR in Kutaraja. The deployment of the secret police managed to calm the situation. The parties concerned are willing to negotiate and on December 6, 1945, a decision was reached to hold a truce.

Conflicts Uleebalang and Ulama

Sigli event has expanded the contention chasm between clergy and uleebalang. This is a test case for each party. From these events, the ulama, or PUSA take a valuable lesson. In order to face more complete uleebalang armaments, not simply by the amount of mass a lot and cries of Allahu Akbar alone. They must have a complete weapon and a well-organized movement. Meanwhile, the judge uleebalang Sigli incident poses a serious threat to their position. Therefore, to overcome this problem they should not feel compassion for an opponent. In other words, the uleebalang feel the need to take decisive action and hard to establish a strong command and uncompromising in the face of an opponent. They plan to smooth the uleebalang party and sent several representatives to meet and ask for the help of the Netherlands in Medan. (Anthony Reid, op. cit,.This 200).

Uleebalang parties also raised T. David Cumbok as the helm who then machtsvertoon (show of strength) on a large scale by firing at people’s homes using carbines, mitraliur, and mortar. In addition, they also began to make arrests and killings of leaders of youth organizations. Under the leadership of David T. Cumbok, uleebalang movement was increasingly fierce. In understanding, Cumbok did not know the philosophy of diplomacy. He only knows how to dictatorship and tyranny with the show of force through arms. On this basis, T. David Cumbok refused to meet with the Governor of Sumatra, Mr. T. Mohd. Hasan, who had come to Aceh. He just sends his brother, T. Mahmud to convey that the events and disputes that occurred in Aceh were a mistake Entire Aceh Ulama Association (PUSA) that had surrounded Lam Meulo.

“On December 16, 1945, they began using heavy weapons. With these weapons, they fired on villages around Lueng Putu and Meutareum. Followed also by burning-burning, “said Mr. S. M. Amin in his book, Memories of the Past 135 pages.

Daud Beureueh

These events move TgK. M. Daud Beureuh to report Cumbok action to Aceh Regional Forum National Committee who did not respond. Not perplexed, he also complained that Cumbok action to T.T Mohd Said, Assistant Resident Sigli. But after an investigation directly to Lam Meulo, T.T. Mohd. Sayid said the shooting was an accident caused by the effects of an exercise. Remarks of Assistant Resident Sigli is, of course, raise the suspicion of the people will alignments themselves with the uleebalangs. Therefore, n.d. Mohd. Said became a target of popular anger at the Tjut T. Hasan Guncyo Sigli who has provided his house into a stronghold of defense uleebalang. Uleebalang action was not merely to bombard the township residents. They return to action with a burning house and a religious school in Titeue judicial office someplace on December 20, 1945.

General attacks on Cumbok

Party scholars and people of non-uleebalang consisting of PUSA, Youth PUSA, PRI and others consolidate to form a resistance organization against the acts of the anarchist party uleebalang. They established a body called the struggle of the people People’s Front Headquarters Center based in Garot under the leadership of Hasan Ali and assisted by T. A Hasan. In addition, they also set up branches in Glee Gapui Hasballah under the leadership of David and Gigieng under the leadership of Mohd. Husin. With the formation of this body of people’s struggle, the battle between the two sides has been at its peak climax. Uleebalang parties who did not care about going to the founding of the people’s struggle body, on December 30, 1945, returned to attack Meutareum and surrounding villages such as Ilot, Lagang, Lala, and Pulo Kameng. Rampant Cumbok soldiers, robbed and looted various kinds of people and their neighbor’s goods do people burning houses.

Uleebalang party anarchy this time, re-reported Tgk. M. David Beuereueh to the National Committee of Indonesia Regions Aceh while bringing physical evidence in the form of shrapnel from the location place of the Case Genesis (TKP). Seeing this evidence, the kind Aceh held a rally and deadlocked until the time of day. Seeing that meeting impressed to walk in this place, Sjamaun Gaharu initiative to divert the issue to the General Headquarters in Aceh. The meeting of the Aceh Provincial General Headquarters finally, have the conclusion that the rioters-rioters acting outside Pidie-based Cumbok is parricide (RI state enemies). While in the second meeting of the MUD Aceh back to the conclusion that the chaos in Pidie Luhak was done by NICA and his henchmen. The resolution taken at that time was in the form of an ultimatum to surrender or battered Cumbok at approximately 12.00 on 10 January 1946. However, the ultimatum was ignored altogether Cumbok party. Because Cumbok forces were so stubborn government finally made a general attack on a large scale in Lam Meulo assisted by the people.

Meanwhile, the people who had already taken action on January 7, 1946, struck Lueng Putu to launch an attack from three directions. From the south, the masses were led by Hasan Nyak assisted by TGK. Ahmad Abdullah, T. H. Husin, T. H Zainal Abidin and Peutua Ma ‘Ali. From the east along the railroad strike forces led by Uma king, Muhd Tahir and Umar Said. While from the East along the highway to Cumbok attacks were launched by forces A. Gani Pearl / Sjamaun Gaharu and Nyak Isaac / Daud Hasan. Lueng Putu was paralyzed after an attack on all fronts and casualties, including Admiral T. Umar was killed and one commander Hasballah Hajji, from PUSA troops, shot in the head but can still be saved. 10 January 1946, folk troops managed to enter the Kingdom Teupin without significant resistance. One day later, the people back row attacked and were able to break the defense Beureuneun uleebalang in Blang Malo.

Exactly on January 12, 1946, in accordance with the ultimatum given MUD Aceh, the people along the TKR and PUSA a general offensive to Lam Meulo as the strongest bulwark uleebalang. A massive battle that had many casualties. Rows of new people managed to enter the city of Lam Meulo on 13 January 1946 and witnessed the battle scars and great resistance in it. The home page T. M. David Cumbok the uleebalang defense base, reeling from the blow of artillery. Although the town of Lam Meulo is occupied, Cumbok Commander and his staff managed to escape. He had been arrested on January 16, 1946, on Mount Seulawah Males by rows of people from the leadership Seulimum TGK. Ahmad Abdullah. While T. Muda Dalam, uleebalang Bambi, and Unoe were involved in the rebellion, fled to the house TGK. H. Abdullah Ujong Rimba to seek refuge. But by Tgk H. Abdullah Ujong Rimba he handed over to the people. On the success of catching the leaders Cumbok, collapsed power uleebalangs Aceh ruled for centuries under the auspices of the Netherlands.

After uleebalang across Aceh subverted, landschaps that had been ruled by uleebalang on the basis of an absolute monarchy system of the small type under the auspices of the Netherlands, changed into sub-districts ruled by camat (regent) on the basis of the democratic system that is sourced to the 1945 Constitution names and city landschap also exchanged. Landschap Cumbok, for example, turns into Way, and the District of Lam City Meulo which is a regional headquarters Cumbok War turned into Kuta Bakti.



The voice was quivering. “I do not want to talk about it,” said Professor Teuku Ibrahim Alfian, a historian from the University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. Father and mother Ibrahim indeed survived Cumbok War, Aceh, 1946. But the grandmother, grandfather, uncle, also a lot of cousins so angry mob victims in the uleebalang family, lords. “I do not know where their graves are until now,” said Ibrahim.

And not just Ibrahim Alfian grieving. “We all cried remembering the bloody incident,” said Farhan Hamid. Farhan was the third son of Teungku Abdul Hamid, nicknamed Ayah Hamid, a friend of Teungku Daud Beureueh.

The war that occurred in 1946 and 1947 and is headquartered in Pidie, arises because of the error and misinterpretation of the role of the clergy and Uleebalang (nobility) against the proclamation of Indonesia, on August 17, 1945. As mentioned by James T. Siegel, an anthropologist from the University of California in his book The Rope of God (1962), War Cumbok cannot be separated from the context of the prevailing social order. Order purposely built for the sake of the Netherlands.

Initially, in 1867, the Sultan was asked to submit to the rule of the Dutch East Indies, based in Batavia. Since then the waves of the long war gave birth to a more expensive national hero class Cut Nyak Dien, Teuku Umar, and Teungku Cik Di Tiro (1867-1942). For the clergy, this means the proclamation of the end of tyranny which has long been unique to Indonesia, particularly Aceh from the Dutch and Japanese. Meanwhile, most other parties of the nobility saw the flight of Japan should be replaced with the Netherlands as an attempt to restore their traditional powers have largely been marginalized by Japan and large when the Dutch power. In order to win the war, the Netherlands commissioned Snouck, an expert in Islamic science, in order to study the character of the people of Aceh. In The Atjehnese (1906), The Netherlands recommends utilizing uleebalang Snouck. Each uleebalang has full authority to control nanggroe (country). There are 103 Nanggroe Aceh. The power of the push nobles like Haji Teuku Cik Mohamad Johan Alam Shah, from Peusangan, prosperous people. He adopted irrigation technology and education and accommodated to scholars. Instead Teuku Keumangan Oemar. He was so mad power: up to more than half of the rice cultivation in nanggroe. When rising disputes in society, uleebalang as Oemar side of the Netherlands. “They’ve got judges, courts, police, prisons also own,” recalls M. Nur El Ibrahimy.

Japan’s entry in 1942, the old polarization began to show the form that on the average: the uleebalangs on the one hand, the people along with scholars in other parties. Then, on August 17th, 1945, the declaration of independence sharpened the polarization. The news did not arrive quickly, but the ulama of Ulama All Aceh (PUSA) – led by Teungku Daud Beureueh then greeted with joy, immediately declared their loyalty. However, the camp is not as clear uleebalang. There Teuku Nyak Arif, Teuku Hamid Azwar, and Teuku Ahmad Jeunib supporting the Republic. But there Teuku Daud Cumbok missed back the arrival of the Dutch. Reasonable? Not so for Professor Anthony Reid, author of The Blood of the People Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra.

“He was very brave, if not arguably reckless and frivolous,” said Reid, who is now director of the Asia Research Institute (ARI), Singapore. In the middle of the crazy atmosphere of independence, David Cumbok even fanfare Indonesia is not ready for independence. There are many stories about him. The night market in Lam Meulo, David Cumbok headquarters, has gambling and drunk as a main menu symbol of clerical abuse. He ordered a decrease in the Red-White flag, and house raids of PUSA leaders. “Daud Beureueh we evacuate all houses in the village of Garot, Metareum,” said Nur Ibrahimy. Finally, in December 1945, the central government decreed Teuku Daud Cumbok were traitors of the Republic and must be punished. The uleebalang rejected.

Proclamation only becomes a momentum peak for the conflict between the ulama and Uleebalang around Pidie. Finally, Uleebalang Teuku Keumangan was led by David T. commander Cumbok and popular resistance was led by Daud Beureueh with Husin Al-Mujahid commander. In resistance, the troops had taken control of the town of Cumbok even Sigli, Pidie. But it did not last long tenure as the mobility of people who do clerical resistance resulted in Cumbok troops being forced back to the headquarters in Lamlo or Kuta Bakti (now).

Tengku Syeh Abdul Hamid (Ayah Hamid)

On January 10, 1946, thousands of people, scholars, and soldiers of the Armed Forces of Indonesia (API) -most-attacking the commander nobility Cumbok headquarters in Lam Meulo. Three days of heavy fighting took place. Rifles, and cannon mutually reciprocated. On the fourth day, they fled into the woods. The Battle officially ended on January 17, 1946. Name Lam Meulo changed to “Kuta Bakti” in honor of the hundreds of people who died there.

But popular anger not quickly subsides, social revolution erupted. Teuku’s beautiful home and all its contents Oemar Keumangan-worth Rp 12 million (days) time-burned down. But Teuku Ahmad Jeunib, which clearly states loyal to the Republic-not escaped the massacres. The victims included the elderly and children uleebalang innocent. Farkhan Hamid remembers one incident that was spoken by his father. A crowd of people asked for his father to come to a field. There, dozens of people are getting ready to kill a dozen boys, the sons of the uleebalang. Ayah Hamid was shocked, shouting: “Show me the law of God that justifies this action.” Massa was silent. The children are then protected at the school owned by his family.

One uleebalang offspring of the survivors, who asked not to be identified, declined to comment. “I have elderly, better not talking about it,” he said. Too bitter.


Pramoedya Ananta Toer was so amazed at the morale of the people of Aceh. For Pram, what is shown by the people of Aceh in the war against the Dutch is a manifestation of the revolutionary spirit. Unlike the Pram, the revolutionary inspired by Marxism, the Aceh based it on Islam.

Dutch colonial elite troops, specially set up in Aceh named Marsose

Pram’s outlook is the same as the father of our nation first. That ideology is not really a fundamental issue in the struggle for Indonesian independence. The most important ideology is the way or means to repel invaders from the Earth Indonesia. Differences often occur precisely in the methods of the struggle itself. Should it be violent or not? If you do not use violence question is, whether to cooperate with the Netherlands or not? The term “revolutionary” Pram is necessarily intended for armed violence. In this one way, Aceh has created brave fighters in the War. Teuku Umar and his wife, Cut Nyak Dien; charismatic cleric, Teungku Cik Di Tiro; Cut Meutia warrior woman; as well as a nobleman named Commander Polim. Images of their faces adorn the walls of the classroom in schools. And their names are used as street names throughout Indonesia.

Although giving birth hero the battlefield, Aceh also gave birth to the fighters in the political arena. One is Teuku Nyak Arif. This name is not as popular Teuku Umar and Cik Di Tiro. But his contribution to the Indonesian state is no less than names.

Teuku Nyak Arif was born in Kutaraja in 1899, the year in which the Dutch pistol through the chest Teuku Umar in Meulaboh. He was educated in London and the Civil Service Attack. The title “Teuku” in front of the name signifies Nyak Arif including Aceh nobility or known by the term “uleebalang”. He was the son of Panglima Sagi XXVI Mukim. Please note, that in the Sultanate of Aceh, the de facto remit only covers an area of Aceh Besar (now includes the city of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar). The smallest administrative area in Aceh is called a village (kampung or village). A collection of some of the villages formed a habitation. This collection of some habitation is under sagi or sago. Each sagi oversees a number of different habitation. At the time of the Sultanate and the Netherlands, there are three sagi in Aceh Besar: Sagi XXII Mukim, XXV Mukim, and Mukim XVI. Roman numerals indicate the number of habitation in each sagi.

When the Sultanate of Aceh was subdued in 1903 and then ended the Empire at its peak once ruled half of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The Netherlands and then in cooperation with the nobility, as is usual in other parts of the archipelago. As well as the Sultanate of Aceh, the Dutch also had de facto power in the Aceh Besar. Because it’s three in Aceh Besar Panglima Sagi automatic under Dutch administration. In the Netherlands, Malays had no power simply because they arose resistance. One Panglima Sagi is that we know the name Commander Polim. Not all sagi took up arms. Even then Commander Polim also surrendered. Of course, the commanders who are forced to work together sagi were privileged Dutch style. Their children are allowed to attend school for the later appointed ambtenaar colonial rule. One of the co-schooled it is Nyak Arif.

Teuku Daud Cumbok (duduk di bawah) berfoto bersama pejabat Belanda dan istri mereka di Sigli 1931

Teuku Daud Cumbok (sitting below) poses with Dutch officials and their wives in Sigli in 1931.

Holland certainly thinks that Nyak Arif tastes education Netherlands including the moderates. So when the Volksraad (People’s Council) was formed, Nyak Arif appointed its members to represent the people of Aceh in 1927. But in fact the doings Nyak Arif alleged, unlike the Netherlands. Nyak Arif along with Suroso and MH Thamrin considered vocalist Volksraad. One of the demands is a request that the Colonial Army soldiers who are Muslims also have a builder religiousness, as soldiers were Christians. The vocal attitude that makes him kicked not being eligible for membership of the Volksraad. Nyak Arif returned to his hometown as Commander Sagi XXVI Mukim. His work as a nationalist by the Dutch make Nyak Arif was appointed Resident of Aceh in October 1945. Nyak Arif runs the government based in Kutaraja (now: Banda Aceh). At that time, the role of scholars in Aceh is very large. One influential cleric is Teungku Muhammad Daud, who led the Union of Ulama Beureueh entire Aceh. August 17, 1945, proclamation of their religious legitimacy after the clerics in Aceh expressed support.

Great scholars’ influence is most evident at the grassroots. The end of the War of 1945 occurred in Aceh Pidie Cumbok. This is a war between scholars and uleebalangs considered to support the return of the Dutch to Aceh. This war was won of course by scholars who are supported by the people. This Cumbok war then spread to the outside of Aceh Pidie. Each uleebalang was suspected and arrested. One of the victims was Teuku Nyak Arif himself a uleebalang. At first, as a resident, Nyak Arif expressed his support for this Cumbok War. The nobles in Cumbok and its surroundings are considered to betray the struggle for independence. But the intention is that initially smelled nationalism, religious motifs shifted. The base of the problem is at the time being discriminated against while the Dutch clergy privileged the nobility. Not infrequently, the scholars are victims of injustice by the nobility. Therefore, when the Dutch leave Aceh, the scholars mainly incorporated in PUSA hold a grudge against them.

Teuku Nyak Arief

Teuku Nyak Arif was among the victims. He was arrested by Teungku Amir Husin Almujahid of the People’s Struggle Army (PLA) in Kutaraja. Almujahid also chairman’s PUSA youths. According to Muhammad Nur El Ibrahimy book Teungku Daud Beureuh: Role in the turmoil in Aceh, catching Nyak Arif is a pure misunderstanding. Nyak Arif was considered in collaboration with a Dutch soldier, Major Knottenbelt in the early days of independence. Knottenbelt is a NICA officer who then wants to reinstate the Netherlands. As in Medan, Surabaya, and other areas, the refusal of the People of the NICA is so intense.

But in the book of National Hero Teuku Nyak Arif, the arrest was motivated motive Husin Al Mujahid to seize power. Nyak Arif, who was also the rank of major general, let himself be caught even though he may instruct the People’s Security Army to face the PLA troops. This incident occurred on March 1, 1946. He said at that time:

Let me fill this position as long as not bloodshed as in Pidie (Cumbok War). Why should we fight with our own people. If only the rank and position it just pleases us, give and not to maintain our rank and position, people who do not know the problem is being victimized. Our independence is just beginning. A lot of thought and effort that is required by our country in the future. If we give sacrifices in the struggle just to find the rank and position, then we want independence will not be achieved.

He was soon relegated to Takengon, Central Aceh. Tragically, in the city’s air cool he breathed his last due to his diabetes. This occurred on May 4, 1946.

Teuku Nyak Arif was buried in Lamnyong, Aceh Besar. It’s right on the river bank. I’ve passed in the tomb. It says the nameplate “National Heroes Cemetery Teuku Nyak Arif: 1899-1946”. When the tsunami on 26 December 2004, this cemetery was flooded by river water that overflowed as a result of the tsunami waves.


In October 1945 Allied envoy arrived in Kutaraja called Major Knotienbelt to discuss the Allied landings in Aceh in order to disarm the Japanese and the care for prisoners of war. Resident Teuku Nyak Arif’s allies reject this plan. Entering the month of December 1945 Resident Teuku Nyak Arif often replaced by Tuanku Mahmud and Teuku Panglima Polem Moh. Ali as Deputy Resident. This is caused because the resident often traveled and reviewed all areas, especially in areas that are less safe.

December 1945 came the war Cumbok resulted in a split between aristocrats and scholars. Ulema wants to seize the reins of government from the group Uleebalang (royalty). At that time Teuku Nyak Arif feel sad when I heard it because he has been trying to unite them since the days of the Dutch East Indies and Japan, and successful. However, the split may not be circumvented.

Ulama under PUSA and Pesindo’s successful control of Aceh killed many Uleebalang, and took over their property and their land. Warriors Ulama (Mujahideen) that led Husein Al Mujahid has ambitions to replace resident Nyak Arif and has the support of the PLA (People’s Resistance Army). Teuku Nyak Arif was arrested in January 1946 by TPR. The arrest of Teuku Nyak Arif was done when he was ill. Teuku Nyak Arief allowed himself to be captured by the Mujahideen and the army camp of the popular resistance (TPR), and ask for the troops that guard not to give resistance.

In sickness, Teuku Nyak Arif was still thinking about the other prisoners and the circumstances of ordinary Acehnese. T. Nyak Arif died on May 4, 1946, in Takengon. He had advised the family: “Do not hold a grudge, because the people’s interests must be placed above everything else”. His body was taken to Kutaraja and was interred in the family burial ground at Lamreung, two kilometers from Lamnyong.

Teuku Nyak Arif was awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 071 / TK / 1974.


Sigli. The woman was peeling betel nuts on the porch in Meunasah Blang, Sakti subdistrict, Pidie district, Tuesday, March 26, 2013. On the terrace rumoh Aceh (Aceh traditional house) hereditary her family, she has welcomed The Globe Journal with friendly and unpretentious. “Please sit down,” she said. Her home is probably not much different from traditional houses Acehnese at first glance, but when examined more deeply, in the house that commanders cumbok war: Teuku Daud Cumbok settled in his lifetime.

That woman is Pocut Hasmamurni, 68 years old. He is the son of Teuku Muhammad Hasan and Pocut Siti Fatimah Zuhra. Teuku Muhamad Hasan himself was the son of David T. Cumbok, while Siti Fatimah Pocut Zuhra is the daughter of Teuku Panglima Polem. Hasmamurni Pocut residence in the Village Meunasah Blang, district. Way, Kab. PidieT. David Cumbok, the grandfather of Pocut Hasmamurni, is Gunco (regent) Lamlo (after the war ended Lamlo Cumbok changed to Kota Bakti, Kecematan Sakti). From the end of 1945 until January 12th, 1946, Cumbok War erupted for 22 days, and took a heavy toll, especially on the part of Uleebalang.

Cumbok war is a war between the ulemas who assembled the whole Aceh Ulama Association (PUSA) with Uleebalang. The war centered on Pidie. In the book Why Aceh Volatile, Hasan Saleh reported that the War Cumbok happen when news of Japan’s defeat has been known to the uleebalangs, so the uleebalangs began to make plans to reach the back of their powers, which were once freely they could earn in their areas respectively on orders the Netherlands.

“When the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia triggered, feudal class wondered what it means for the survival of the proclamation of their power,” wrote Hasan Saleh. But every war must keep injuries to anyone who has experienced it. Hasmamurni said he lost his father while still too small. “My father was known smart, so he sent the Japanese to school in Padang, West Sumatra”. He remembered his hometown and decided to go home. “My father was killed and buried in Glee Cirieh. At that moment my life is approximately 9 months. The story of my father’s death, I heard from my grandmother I started growing up, “said Hasmamurni. He did not look sad as if it had long dark events. Hasmamurni then takes a photo in his house. He handed him the picture of his mother. “This is my mother, Siti Fatimah Pocut Zuhra. My mother was the daughter of Commander Polem, “he concluded.


History should have better seeds and be better qualified to change the skin and the direction of development. If not, then there is no function to take lessons from history. Progress cannot be expected from the change in history. The fundamental weakness of a regime was seen as clear as daylight, so he was destroyed by the new group, which then set up a new regime that has a role to repeat the cycle of disaster and the same phase even though the period of time and a different shape.

Hopefully, we can all take a lesson from the summary above.


About Aceh:

  1. CUMBOK WAR, A SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN ACEH (1946-1947); 8 April 2017;
  8. ACEH WOMEN FULL POWER; 13 June 2017;
  9. DUSK IN MALACCA; 4 July 2017;
  10. GOLD, INFIDELS, AND DEATH; 10 July 2017;
  11. MANTE THE LOST PYGMY TRIBE; 13 July 2017;
  12. HOW TO TELL HISTORY; 14 August 2017;
  15. WHEN CRITICISM IS FORBIDDEN; 14 October 2017;
  18. THE PRICE OF FREEDOM; 5 December 2017;
  19. ACEH CRAZY OR ACEH PUNGO; 25 February 2018;

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31 Responses to CUMBOK WAR, A SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN ACEH (1946-1947)

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